A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V Z
ANDRIEKUS, Leonardas (1914-2003), poet, born in Barstyciai, county of Mazeikiai, on July 15, 1914. He completed secondary school in Kretinga. He joined the Franciscan Order and Subsequently studied at universities in Austria and Italy, where he received the degree of Doctor of Canon Law. He has been provincial of the Lithuanian Franciscan Fathers in the United States since 1964. Atviros marios (The Open seas), a collection of his poetry, was published in 1955; Saule kryziuose (The Sun amidst the Crosses), 1960; and Naktigine (The Nightwatch), 1963. A selection of his poetry was translated into English by Demo Jonaitis and published as Amene in Amber in 1968. His first book reflects the spirit of St. Francis, while the two subsequent volumes draw inspiration from Lithuanian folk art and nature. His later poetry touches on the early history of Lithuania. Andriekus excels as a poet of nature. According to Charles Angoff, who wrote a foreword to Amene in Amber, the poem Autumn is one of the best poems to that sombre season written in the last fifty years. The prevailing tone of his poetry is a seriousness that is, according to Angoff, laden with soft sorrow. Andriekus is at his best when he fuses his religious thought with folk symbolism and historical motifs. Saule kryziuose was awarded the annual prize of the Lithuanian Association for Writers in 1961.
ANDRIUSIS, Pulgis (1907-), writer, born in Gaidziai, near Tauragnai, county of Utena, on March 18, 1907. He studied literature at the University of Kaunas and art at the school of Art in Kaunas. He learned many languages during the course of the studies and extensive travels in Western Europe and North Africa. From 1944-49 he lived in refugee camps in West Germany. In 1949 he immigrated to Australia with his family and settled in Adelaide.
Andriusis began his writing career by contributing articles (as book reviews, drama critiques and essays) to various periodicals.
More serious literary endeavours are represented by the short story Sudiev, kvietkeli (Good-by, Little Flowers), 1951; the narrative Rojaus vartai (The Gate of Paradise), 1954; and two collections of short stories, Anoj pusej ezero (On the Other Side of the Lake), 1957; and Purienos po vandeniu (Marsh Marigolds under Water), 1963. Some of his creations received prizes of the emigrant Lithuanian Writers Association and the Lithuanian Red Cross. Andriusis short stories are written in an eastern Lithuanian dialect. They abound with descriptions of nature and of peasant life, which is closely tied to nature.
Andriusis has translated two French novels into Lithuanian: namely, R. Dorgeles Less Croix de obis and C. Fereres La bataille. One of his best translations is the Lithuanian edition of Servants Don Quixote, 1943.
ANGLICKIS, Stasys (1905-1999), poet, born in Bernotavas, near Plunge, on Dec. 19, 1905. He studied German at the University of Kaunas, graduating in 1923. From 1932 he taught in a boy's secondary school in Siauliai; from 1940-41 he was an inspector of secondary schools; subsequently he taught again, in Vilnius and Kursenai. His first published poems appeared in literary magazines in 1927. Most of his work was published before World War II. He is author of the following volumes: Zingsniai prie sfinkso (Steps near the Sphinx), 1931; Kraujo auka (Blood Sacrifice), 1932; Septynios didzios nuodemes (The Seven Cardinal Sins), 1935; Didzioji kancia (The Great Suffering), 1937; Rumai be pamato (The Foundations Mansion), a drama, 1935. Since the Soviet occupation only 2 collections of his poetry have appeared Po atviru dangumi (Under the Open Sky), 1960, and Metuges linksta i saule (The Yearling Shoots Bend toward the Sun), 1965. He has also translated into Lithuanian M. Lermintov's Demon (1949) and H. Heinzs Reisebilder (1953). He represents the school of neo-symbolist lyricism.
- When people speak about contemporary Lithuanian writers Juozas Aputis name usually comes up. For over 30 years literary critics have called him a writer in whose books tradition and modernity, universality and individuality have been blended with a masterly touch.
- His first collection of short stories was published in 1963. Another five collections of stories and three collections of novellas have appeared since then.
- The novel Never Stop in a Desert, which took the author 20 years to complete, was voted Best Work of Fiction in 1996.
PORTRAIT OF A WRITER
By Liudvikas Jakimavicius
Ienvy painters their ability to capture a persons characteristics, a mood or a look. A written portrait will always be less visually suggestive than a work by a talented painter. I envy them especially when the subject is not some ordinary fellow citizen but a man who cannot be mistaken for somebody else when he walks down the street.
I am speaking about the writer Juozas Aputis whom I got to know closely some seven or eight years ago. I remember as clearly as if it were only yesterday a time when three of us Aputis, another writer, Valdas Papievis, a chum of mine, and I were sitting together in a small room.
It goes without saying that the table is not bare. Aputis brings out a flask of moonshine and starts slicing some sausage. The situation seems very relaxed, but the writer is twice our age and so we try to be polite. He insists, however, that we call him by his first name.
Emptying the flask and all shouting at the same time, we start a heated discussion. We share our views on other writers, who is talented and who is a dilettante.
This acquaintance was deepened when Aputis offered me a position on the literary magazine Metai (The Four Seasons). Frankly speaking, he was not the sweetest boss of the many I have had. Maybe his impulsive artistic character was to blame for that.
Every human being sooner or later finds a place where he or she can feel at home. When I see Juozas sitting at his editors desk it occurs to me that his true place is not here. It is on the bank of the Ula River in the unspoilt village of Zervynos where he goes whenever he can. It is there that he finds most of his literary ideas. From there come the pine trees, the sky, the sand and the moss that feature in his books.
I once heard a funny story. One summer students were studying folklore in the Zervynos area. They saw a man working in his farmyard and, as usual, asked him whether he knew any folk songs. Juozas said he did, and invited them into his house. He chatted with the students, but did not sing any songs, and they became anxious.
When they finally persuaded him to sing, they heard songs sung in an operatic voice. The students frowned and, saying it was no good, left without recognizing the writer whose works are even included in secondary-school textbooks.
I do not know if this story is true or not, but one thing is clear. If the students had seen Juozas in a suit and tie they would certainly have recognized him. However, Juozas in Zervynos, next to a farmhouse, was not a writer but a simple man from the village. In other words, he was where he belonged.
On the other hand, I doubt this is the only place where he feels at home. I have heard that he once spent the whole night talking to a tramp under a bridge in Vilnius. The secret of his talent lies in this rare quality to gain experience in real life as if he was an artist drawing from nature. If there is something that cannot be taken from him, it is his deep persistence and determination to carry his goals through.
He is a passionate collector of old radio sets. He hardly knows himself how many Telefunken radios he has repaired. One might think it is enough to have one working radio. However, Juozas would not be Juozas if he did not go to the flea market to rummage in heaps of spare parts, lamps and screws and then haggle furiously over the price until a bargain is struck.
He knows all the parts of a radio, and it looks as if he is obsessed with a passion to know everything from inside.
There are mountains of works of prose in his editorial office. To read everything would damage the eyes and waste time. Nevertheless, he reads them all and is never willing to dismiss them as mediocre and put them aside. Even in inferior prose he can find a jewel. Then he is filled with joy, like a child who has found a piece of shining metal, quotes the passage and cheers everybody up.
His latest novel (it took two decades to write) is called Never Stop in a Desert. The main character, Milasius, sent to work as a forester, may be modelled on the author himself who, like a sponge, absorbs stories of ordinary villagers.
He keeps asking himself: Why? He muses over how moss grows on sand, how the saw starts to wail when it comes into contact with a tree trunk, what can be seen from a watchtower.
Very often Juozas quotes from Chekhov. He envies this combination of doctor and writer. Not because literature seems to be capable of curing the sick, but because the profession of doctor, unlike any other profession, gives a host of opportunities to meet people. The doctor is able to touch their pain and their fate.
Juozas can sometimes surprise you with an unexpected question: Tell me what happened? And you thought that nobody had noticed what you were trying to hide and that you had learned to conceal what others were not supposed to see.
People say that when Juozas was a child a mare kicked him in the head and ever since then he has had this acute power of observation. It is true that there is a horseshoe-shaped scar on Juozas forehead. May God give each writer the same kind of mares kick.
A SHINING WHITE SPECK OF THE PAST
By Juozas Aputis
- He was pacing the dusk-filled room, talking to himself, that nameless person who was not actually there.
- Thank you. From your words I realize you are a good man. If I am wrong, Ill know how to explain myself. One doesnt feel guilty mistakenly thinking that a person is better, not worse. But what do you care about my conscience! You insist that you mean well. Thanks again. Thanks firstly, for remembering me, secondly for the sincerity of your wishes. Yet why didnt you come and shake my hand? Why did you hide so completely in the dusk?
- If I followed the Japanese code of conduct my best wishes to you would be a hundred times more sincere. In doing so I would be simulating the truth in a way, but who on earth needs it?
- Dont be surprised or frightened. I can recognize you even by the way you walk. You dont suspect that I can spot you from far away when you are walking in the same direction as I am, with many strangers between us, and lots of people going in the same direction! No matter how well you might know me and your words tell me you do I doubt you realise how I hate to stare at people, and it irritates me when others do, too. You must glimpse a person at once, in the twinkling of an eye, take him in in an instant before he starts playing a role. I dont need a role, I can play my own role. When he gets into my range of view, the person feels a current run through his body, just for a moment, and that is all. Thats why you dont turn when, walking way behind you, I stop looking at the back of your head. But why didnt you turn around when I stared at you with such insistence? Could it be that you dont find it very pleasant to see your own past?
- I am familiar with the more interesting features of your face and the faults of your character. I once saw you examining me so thoroughly. I was standing with my back to you and the trolleybus was crossing the bridge in our town. To tell the truth, at the beginning I did not stand with my back to you. It was only later that I deliberately turned away from you so that you could see just half of my face. You can not take everything in at a glance. You stared at me for such a long time and the intensity of your stare was so irksome, as if I had just killed a man and you were at a loss what to do, that I could not help smiling. You did not seem to notice this, either, because you wanted to see something else. You did not even understand that I knitted my brows on purpose and, with feigned sadness in my eyes, immersed into my secret life, which you were so interested in. I dont remember when I last felt so good. Oh well, they say doing good is a fools lot, but I was happy to fullfil your wish, to let you see me totally broken down, finished, hardly able to ever get up, neck-deep in my miserable, secret days and nights.
- But what I was really thinking about then was the little apple tree which I had recently planted and which had been gnawed at by hares twice already. Are they going to get their teeth into it again?
- However, you were determined not to let me go so easily. Believe me. Even though I was standing with my back to you, I saw you take out a book, open it at the marked page and start reading. You did it on purpose! You moved your lips slowly, forming the words about deep despair. You went on and on, mouthing the words. I could hear them with my back, though. Thank you. I understood. You had started making prophesies.
- I had to get off soon. Even when I was half-way out of the trolleybus, your words were still ringing in my ears. Annoyed and hurt, I walked away, thinking what words I could read to you and from what book?
- And now, with those sincere words of goodwill you awakened that old wish of mine again. And again you made me remember that deep despair.
- All right! I wont read, but Ill tell you a little story from my childhood. Ill tell you about Gvildys.
- Let my little story help you to know me and yourself better. I dont mind.
- Gvildys had a bicycle. Its black frames gleamed with lacquer and both wheels were nickel-plated. I never gave a thought to how he had obtained it, but everybody craved for a ride on it. He never begrudged it and would take us on his bike as far away as Rudupe Hill, but before that we had to undergo a very unpleasant trial. Was it only unpleasant? Gvildys was a shortich man, but strong as a horse. And his eyes. Oh, I remember them so well cunning, dark brown. I have never since seen eyes of such a deep brown (I can see you rejoicing, you expect me to blurt it out that only your eyes, perhaps, are of similar brownness and by saying it I will give myself away. You will understand that I dont know you. Its an idle hope. No one who has ever seen them would call your eyes brown. Both his lips had a slight twist to the right, they would suck each other with an odd rage, and the teeth behind them seemed to be grinding the words he uttered. Gvildys cheeks were hollow, his jaw prominent, his black hair combed back and, evidently, oiled, because it was always shiny.
- Want a ride? he would ask, jumping off his sparkling bicycle, always deftly, and squeezing my fingers hard in a handshake until it hurt. This handshake of his would make everyone, not only me, wince. People much stronger than me, grown-ups, even my father, would wince. (Your father, I am sure, would have winced as well.)
- Gvildys didnt even ask me then if I would like a ride. He jumped off and squeezed my childish hand. Gvildys was fond of children. He loved them. He even bought a hair clip and we would all go to his place to have our hair cut. And so, Gvildys gave my childish hand a squeeze. I squatted down with pain, and when I drew myself up, he nodded towards the shining bicycle towards the crossbar, to be precise, on which we would sit when Gvildys gave us a ride nodded his head and a second after he had let go of my hand he was again holding out his hand to squeeze mine. Fastened with clasps at the bottom, his trouser legs were sticking out like dogs ears. This time he knew pretty well what he was doing. I dont remember whether I badly wanted to get on the crossbar, but I, too, held out my hand timidly, a grazed, grubby hand, trembling with fright.
- Standing at the side of the road, propped up against a pole, Gvildys bicycle looked like a roebuck caught in a noose.
- Well, well, lets see, Gvildys laughed, his lips giving an even sharper twist to the right and his bluish white teeth showing on the left of his mouth. How much pressure do you think you can stand today?
- And so it began. As if there was a very precise mechanism fitted into his hand, I felt the pain rising slowly, gradually, from my fingers to the forearm, then coiling like a snake around my neck and drifting back to my heart and from there, piercing the bones, it reached my legs and feet and sank into the ground.
- Well, how does it feel? I can hear Gvildys words and see his slanting eyes, the smirk on his face and a smouldering cigarette in his hand.
- Nothing special... Just as usual..., I try to answer him. It is not the pain I am afraid of now, but the weakness. I feel faint, my knees buckle, and, no longer looking at Gvildys, I frantically look for some device in myself I could summon to will my knees not to bend and my mouth not to open. Gvildys lessons would last until the first yelp. The device appears, in my brain of all places. I see a snow-white speck. It is shining and white and so kind that we immediately find a common language, and it tells someone to hold me firmly, and I brace myself, put out my chest, and I can see, very clearly, Gvildys slanting eyes go back to where they belong. They slowly get rounder. He drops the cigarette from his left hand, sways a little to the right and starts stooping, almost pulling me. Big tears are rolling down my cheeks. His eyes, to my great surprise, have also started watering with tension. He looks embarrassed. He is furious. If he could, he would force my mouth open to make me yelp, but he does not know that there is this kind white speck in my brain. Gvildys does not know that I will not let out a squeak today.
- And what do you think? Gvildys left hand is slowly moving towards his right hand to help it. They are already pressing into one and my little bruised palm disappears in it.
- You cant do this! This is not fair! I manage to say, and I say it so that Gvildys understands, immediately. Could it be that a white speck has flashed across his brain too?
- He opens his palms, and his arms go down. The white speck in my brain wills some blood to be sent into my fingers which are as white as paper. The blood flows in and it feels as if a school of fish was nudging the numb places. They nudge and nudge, and my fingers get warmer and rosier.
- Hell! Gvildys says and spits through a gap between his teeth. What the hell has happened?
- What else can he say?
- And what can I say, not then but now?
- What was that kind white speck?
- Subconscious realization! I did not quite understand then, but now I know. Gvildys aimed to develop resistance, self-control and toughness in us, to strengthen our willpower. There is something else I know very well, too, and I want to stress this. It was not only because of this that Gvildys squeezed our fingers in his iron hand.
- It was not only our willpower that he cared about.
- Trusting your subtle ability to understand things, I would like to add a couple of words to the scene I have just described, the more so as it is so easy to do. Life itself has prompted them.
- I went to my native village in the spring and visited the place where our houses used to stand. Staring at the pieces of bricks scattered on the ground, I spotted something rusty and tugged at it. It was a gimlet, part of my childhood days, forged by our neigh bour the blacksmith. I had drilled quite a few holes with it before I made my way in life, in the right and in the wrong places. I cleaned it on the dry grass, hooked a willow branch through its loop and walked on, swinging it, with a fearful feeling of the invisible eyes of the past piercing my back.
- Having covered a good distance, with silicate brick houses here and there, I suddenly heard chanting sounds behind the untrimmed bushes and asked a stranger whom I met on my way :
- What has happened there? Has somebody died?
- Gvildys. Did you know him?
- I made for Gvildys house, the rusty piece of time in my hand.
- I left the gimlet in the porch.
- Gvildys was lying in that part of the house where he used to cut our hair and where our curls would strew the dirt floor like carded wool.
- Gvildys looked handsome, his grey hair nicely trimmed by one of his children, perhaps with the same hair clip which he had used on us, his cheeks just as hollow, the jaw prominent and the lips with a twist to the right. You could not see his brown eyes, though. They were covered with eyelids which had turned blue.
- I stepped aside nervously. I had to because the holy picture in his hands was casting a shadow in the candle-light. Having made that step, I saw the fingers of Gvildys right hand, and I had a very close look! The fingers were black!
- (From LITHUANIA IN THE WORLD, No 2, 1998)
AUGIUS (Augustinavicius), Paulius (1909-1960), painter and engraver, born in Zemaiciu Kalvarija, on Sept. 2, 1909. He studied art at the School of Art in Kaunas (1929-35) and in Paris (1935-38) at the Ecole National Superior des beaux-arts and the Conservator Nationale des Arts et Metiers. He taught art at the Institute of Applied Art in Kaunas from 1939-40. His articles concerning art appeared in the Lithuania press and in cultural and scholarly journals. He was a member of the group of young Lithuanian artists Forma from 1933 and of the Lithuanian Artists' Association from 1935. He left Lithuania in 1941, because a member of the Austrian Art Institute (Innsbruck) and of the Lithuanian Art Institute (Freiburg, Germany, later in Chicago, United States). He lived in Chicago from 1949-60 and worked as an illustrator in the field of commercial art.
He was still a student when his works were first displayed at the exhibition. From 1934 till World War II such exhibits took place in Lithuania (various locations), Latvia (Riga), Estonia (Tallinn), Czechoslovakia (Kosice), and in 1937 his works were displayed at the World Exhibition of Art and Technology in Paris and the World Exhibition of Lithography and Wood-engraving in Chicago. After World War II exhibitions of his work were held in Austria, Germany, Holland, Belgium, Italy, Canada and the United States. His works can be seen at art museums in Kaunas, Vilnius, Chicago, and elsewhere. Augius used the xylograph technique (woodcut, wood engraving and linocut). From blocks of wood and linoleum, prepared by the artist himself using the method odd rubbing, his work was printed on Japanese Rise Paper. His first wood engravings were made for Pr. Genys' book of poetry Atnasavimai (Offerings), 1934. Some of his earlier wood engravings before he went to Parish (1935) are: Audra (Storm), Birute ir Kestutis, Piemenelis (Shepherd boy), Rugiu rinkeja (Maiden Stack Gathering Mushrooms). In Paris he made the best wood engravings, the themes and moods of which reflect the people, the life and the countryside of native land. From that period the most important works are: Baznytkaimis Lietuvoje (Village in Lithuania), Pavasaris Lietuvoje (Spring in Lithuania), Malda (Prayer) and illustrations in calour for the publication Zemaiciu vestuves (Samogitian Wedding) by M. Valancius. For these engravings he was awarded in 1938 the first prize at art exhibition in Kaunas and an honorary diploma at the World Exposition in Paris. Also in Paris he executed the following works: Piemenaite (Shepherdess), Trudges (On the Way to the Market), Namo (Going Home), Zemaiciu kalvarijos (Stations of the cots in Samogitia) and illustration for the publication Petras Kurmelis by Zemaite. In 1940-1944 he completed a series of wood-engravings of larger size, entitled Zemaitijos simfonija (Samogitian Symphonies), and one of his most monumental works for the book by S. Neris, Zalcio pasaka (Story of the Serpent). This book contains 100 illustrations was published in Germany in 1947. Among his last works were wood engravings to illustrate the book by the poet M. Macernis, entitled Poezija (Poetry), 1961.
The basic subject of his art was the people, nature, ethnography, and folklore of Samogitia. He sought out themes and forms in the timeless traditions of his native country, but also paid attention to such artists as Skoczylas, Kravcenko, Favorski, Gauguin, and especially Mesereel.
He died in Chicago on Dec. 7, 1960. After his death a collection of his wood engravings was completed and published with the title: Paulius Augius, Chicago, 1966, edited by A. Kurauskas and V. Saulius. The introduction (in Lithuanian and in English) contains an extensive biography of the artist as well as a destruction of his work.
- BERNOTAS, Napoleonas (1914-1959), actor and director, born in Judrenai, county of Taurage, on June, 1914. He graduated from the Pedagogic Institute of Klaipeda in 1938 and taught for several years. In 1940 he began to act the Vaidila Theatre in Vilnius. From 1945-52 he was an actor at the Drama Theatre of Telsiai; from 1952-56, director and actor are the Drama Theatre of Klaipeda. From 1956 until his death on April 7, 1959, he was a director and actor at the Lithuanian Film Studio in Klaipeda. He was especially noteworthy in the role of Tartuffe in the play by Moliere.
BAGDONAS, Juozas (1911-), painter, born in Vindeikiai, county of Sakiai, on Dec. 11. He studied painting at the Kaunas School of Art and the studio of J. Vienozindis. He began to exhibit his work in 1933. His paintings mostly showed Lithuanian landscapes and small towns, also still life. For a symbolic composition on the theme of the sea he was awarded a prize at the exhibition organized by the Society of Lithuanian Artists in Kaunas in 1938. He withdrew from Lithuania because of Soviet Russian invasion in 1944 and lived for a time in Germany; from there he immigrated to Colombia, South America. In Bogota he founded his own studio of ceramics and sculpture. Ceramic art influenced his subsequent work in which he uses lines suggestive of pottery and light and dark patches. A preference for abstract art predominates in the work of his later period. In the paintings of this period he uses large patches and colour contrasts, creating by these means a disturbing and dramatic effect. His latest abstract works reflect the spiritual chaos of the modern world. He has lived in the United States since 1958.
BERNOTAS, Napoleonas (1914-1959), actor and director, born in Judrenai, county of Taurage, on June, 1914. He graduated from the Pedagogic Institute of Klaipeda in 1938 and taught for several years. In 1940 he began to act the Vaidila Theatre in Vilnius. From 1945-52 he was an actor at the Drama Theatre of Telsiai from 1952-56, director and actor at the Drama Theatre of Klaipeda. From 1956 until his death on April 7, 1959, he was a director and actor at the Lithuanian Film Studio in Klaipeda. He was especially noteworthy in the role of Tartuffe in the play by Moliere.
BORISEVICIUS, Vincentas (1887-1947), bishop of Telsiai, born in the hamlet of Bebrininkai, near Paezeriai, county of Vilkaviskis, on Nov. 23, 1887. He studied theology and philosophy at the Theological Seminary of Seinai and the University of Fribourg, Switzerland. In 1910 he was ordained priest and until World War I a curate in various parishes in Suduva (southwestern Lithuania). From 1916-17 he was chaplain to the 10th Russian army in Minsk, where he also attended to Lithuania refugees. When he returned to Lithuania in 1918 he served as chaplain to the schools of Marijampole and was a member of the town council. From 1922-26 he was a professor at the Theological Seminary of Gizai. After the ecclesiastical province of Lithuania was established in 1926, he was appointed chancellor of the diocese of Telsiai. From 1927-35 he was a professor at and rector of the Seminary of Telsiai. In 1940 he was consecrated bishop and appointed suffrage bishop of the diocese of Telsiai; in 1941 he was made ordinary of the diocese. He was arrested when Soviet Russia occupied Lithuania for the second time in 1946 and was tortured to death. The exact date of his death is unknown. He published his lectures and sermons in Tiesos
- kelias (Way of Truth), 1925-40, a magazine for priests, and in other Catholic periodicals.
- BRUZAS KONSTANTINAS
TheGuardian of the Past
By Adomas Butrimas
In Zemaiciu Kalvarija, a quiet market town in Samogitia, lives one of the countrys most active ethnographers, Konstantinas Bruzas. Most of his ethnographic-historical studies and all kinds of diverse material are housed in the Alka Museum in Teliai, the largest museum in Samogitia. Part of it is kept and displayed in his house which has also become a museum.
Konstantinas Bruzas, 85, was born into a farming family. He served eight years in the army of independent Lithuania. With the Soviet occupation, like most of the countrys army officers, he was exiled to the far north. During his second year of exile in Siberia he almost died of exhaustion.
After 15 years he settled in Latvia, as exiles were not allowed to live in Lithuania. He worked for a sanitary unit as a rat poisoner, later as a street sweeper, and began to jot down his observations of the various people he met. Gradually these notes became a collection of humorous and philosophical portraits of different people.
In 1963 Bruzas returned to Lithuania, where he failed to find a decent job. Wherever he went he received the same answer: You are a former exile.
In the autumn of 1967 he finally moved to Zemaiciu Kalvarija, a town in western Lithuania. He settled in a little house which had formerly belonged to the sisters of the Order of St Casimir. There lived the mistress of the house with her dog and a nun who had formerly worked at the convent.
My fate was determined by my sympathy for the innocent. I became sensitive myself. First to pain and violence, and later to my homeland, my cultural heritage and nature, Bruzas recalls. He was first introduced to ethnography by a museum curator in Telsiai who, in answer to Bruzas question about where to begin, said: First extinguish whats burning.
He has been working in the town for over 30 years now, diligently, quietly and purposefully documenting place names, decaying buildings, household utensils, tools, pictures and books. The preservation of the old buildings of the town, its archaeological, cultural and natural monuments, has become Bruzas daily work.
VISIONS IN STONE
In his cottage most space is set aside for material about local poets, writers, figures from science and culture. He has spent much time and energy on the immortalization of their memory.
First of all he devoted himself to the memory of the poet Vytautas Macernis, censured by the Soviet government.
Bruzas devised and implemented an original project. Seven stones bearing lines from his poetic visions mark the most important places connected with the poets life.
Later, he undertook to care for the place where Macernis died and to construct a monument. He collects and makes donations himself. In summer 1987 one of Bruzas dreams came true when a museum to Macernis opened in Zemaiciu Kalvarija.
NARROW STREETS: A SOURCE OF PRIDE
Zemaiciu Kalvarija has been mentioned in records since 1253. The towns magnificent 17th-century baroque and classical church with its famous miracle-working picture of St Mary on its main altar, the 19 stone and wooden chapels of the Stations of the Cross recognized as monuments of folk architecture, the towns layout, and the well-preserved wooden buildings are unique cultural features.
Is it easy to find a town with such a varied topography? It has 12 hills that have been named, and as many that havent, Bruzas says.
The town suffered a lot at the hands of bureaucrats. For instance, in 1967 Bruzas resisted the local governments resolution to convert one hill, together with its ancient settlement, the remains of the dead and its legends, into a gravel pit.
He has had to battle with various innovations more than once, as when rash decisions were made to make alterations to the chapels, or to replace old wooden crosses made by craftsmen with ones made of two welded pieces of metal.
Bruzas concerns for this authentic monument to urbanism have been put into words in a collection of writings: It is important to preserve the old and to harmonize it with the new; to continue to create, not to destroy. The conservatism of Samogitia is not a throwback, but an ethnic asset.
Our streets are narrow. Often two vehicles can barely pass each other. But these little narrow streets are a source of pride, Bruzas says.
SAVING THE CULTURAL HERITAGE
Lithuanias villages were destroyed, houses decayed and collapsed before my eyes. In the 60s and 70s the villagers began to move to new places, leaving behind their old farms. In other cases they were forced by the demon of land reclamation. This was especially true of places that were more densely populated.
I saw the rubble of destroyed cottages and heard people moaning. So I collected and described it all. Much has been reclaimed, but even more has been lost. The harvest was too large and the workers too few, Bruzas says.
- In order that these cottages, whole villages with their residents, traditions and customs, would not disappear without a trace, he has taken notes and filled out questionnaires, collected hundreds of reminiscences, descriptions, has measured innumerable old cottages, and drawn plans marked with the locations of archaeological monuments.
- Everything that he has accumulated has been handed over to the Ethnography Department of the Institute of Lithuanian History, the Institute of the Lithuanian Language and Vilnius University. However, the largest collections and manuscripts have gone to museums in Samogitia.
- Only a few of his works have been published and this does not reflect the significance of what he has done.
- Part of the material collected has found its way into researchers studies, sometimes without any reference to the man who has delved into the riches of Zemaiciu Kalvarija.
- (From LITHUANIA IN THE WORLD, No 2, 1998)
BUDAVAS, Stasius (1908-1966), writer, born in Papile, county of Siauliai, on March 5, 1908. He studied theology and literature at the University of Kaunas. Ordained in 1933, he was subsequently a curate in various parishes of the archdiocese of Kaunas and a school chaplain in the city itself. He left Lithuania in 1944 and lived for a time in Austria and Germany. He settled in the United States in 1947, and was chaplain of the Lithuanian Convent of the Immaculate Conception in Putnam, Connecticut until 1950. He subsequently served as a curate in American parishes in Maine and Florida. He died in North Palm Beach, Florida on Sept. 9, 1966.
Budavas' first published literary work was a collection of lyric poems, Sirdies stygoms skambant (To the Sound of Heartstrings) – 1926. He later turned to prose. In the Lithuania he published the following prose works: three books for children: Uz motinos meile (For Mother's Love), 1928; Brolius, nevirkdink seseles (Brother, Don't Make Your Sister Cry, 1928; and Naslaiciu Kaledos (An Orphans' Christmas), 1934; a collection of short stories, Sirdys ir geles (Hearts and Flowers), 1932 (Poll. translation in the 1937); and three novels, Mokytojas Banaitis (The Teacher Banaitis), 1935; Loreta, 1938, 2nd ed. in the U.S.A. 1952; and Sala (The Island), 1939. After emigration from Lithuania he published the novel Uzdraustas stebuklas (Forbidden Miracle) in 1954 (Eng. transl.1955); Varpai skamba (The Bells Toll), 1952 and Rusti siena (The Angry Wall), 1959.
His novels are written in a realistic, if slightly sentimental, style; his works for children are idealistic, sentimental, and didactic.
CESNYS, Blaziejus (1884-1944), Roman Catholic priest and scholar, born in Paluklaukis, near Luoke, Samogitia, on Feb. 13, 1884. From 1900-04 he studied at the Kaunas Theological Seminary, and from 1904-08 at the Theological Academy in St. Petersburg Russia, where gee gained his master's degree. Ordained in 1906, he continued his theological studies at the University of Fribourg, Switzerland (1908-11). From 1911-1918 he taught dogmatic theology at the Theological Academy in St. Petersburg, where he was awarded a doctorate in 1917. From 1919-21 he was professor of dogmatic theology, Sanskrit and Lithuanian at the Catholic University of Lublin, Poland. Upon he returned to Lithuania in 1922 he was appointed full professor in the Faculty of theology and Philosophy in the University of Kaunas, and retained this position until the Soviet occupation in 1940. In 1922-23 he was Secretary to the University of Kaunas, 1922-29 (with some years' break) dean of the Faculty of Theology and Philosophy, and 1929-36 Assistant Rector. From 1926-44 he was also rector of the students' church, and from 1929-31, Vice-chairman of the Catholic Academy of Arts and Sciences. When the Soviet administration relieved him of his post at the University in 1940, he taught at the Kaunas Theological Seminary. From 1941-44 he taught again in the University faculty of Theology.
While living in St. Petersburg (Petrograd from 1914), he concerned himself with the welfare of the Lithuanian community and was active in the political movement which sought independence for Lithuania. Thanks to his intervention, the works of the composer Ceslovas Sasnauskas survived revolution and the composer's body was brought from Petrograd to Kaunas. When living in Kaunas, he administered the Society of St. Vincent de Paul, which helped orphans and other disadvantaged people. From 1931-36 he was on the staff of the Lithuanian Encyclopaedia. For his services to the church he was raised to canon of the diocese of Kaunas and domestic prelate of the Holy See.
Cesnys was an erudite scholar, a leading Lithuanian authority on dogmatic theology and a popular preacher. Although he never published any learned papers, except for some mimeographed lectures, he wrote extensively for the popular press. He died in Palulkalukis, on Aug. 1, 1944.
CIRTAUTAS, Gasparas Feliksas (1841-1913), bishop of Samogitia, born in the hamlet of Padumliai, near the Vievirzenai, county of Kretinga, on June 9, 1841. He studied theology at the Theological Seminary at Varniai from 1862-64 and at the Theological Academy in St. Petersburg, 1864-68, from which he graduated with a master's degree in theology. He was ordained in 1868 and appointed professor at the Theological Seminary at Kaunas. He lectured on Latin, Holy Sculpture, and dogmatic theology. From 1877-88 he was professor of dogmatic theology at the Theological Academy in St. Petersburg. He was lector of the Theological Seminary at Kaunas from 1888-1900. On Nov. 30, 1897, he was consecrated titular bishop of Castoria and appointed auxiliary bishop of Samogitia. The seat of the bishop at that time was in Kaunas. On the death of Bishop M. Paliulionis, he took over the running of the bishopric from 1908-10, and was bishop in ordinary from 1910-13. He died in Berlin on Sept. 17, 1913. He was buried in Kaunas. He distinguished himself by his charitable work and his tolerance in personal relations.
By GIEDRIUS SUBACIUS
"Through my writing, I wanted (...) to prove to the adversaries of the Lithuanian and Samogitian languages that every person who has the wish can write in Lithuanian just as well as in any other refined language."
- Simonas Daukantas There is a street named after Simonas Daukantas in every Lithuanian city or town. His portrait appears on the new 100-litas banknote – the Lithuanian paper-money note of the highest denomination.
To Lithuanians, Simonas Daukantas has always been the symbol of their country's national identity and spiritual rebirth. In the Polonized and Russified Lithuania of the 19th century, Daukantas was the first public figure to publish his writings only in Lithuanian. He wanted to prove that his mother tongue was perfectly suited for literary and scholarly works and that it had to occupy a prominent place in Lithuanian culture.
- Daukantas was an innovator in many spheres of Lithuania's public life and culture. He was the first to write a history of Lithuania in the vernacular (until then, historical works had been printed in Polish and Latin only). In 1845 he published The Character of Ancient Lithuanians (...), the first schollary book in the national language about Lithuanian customs and traditions, beliefs, military skills and ethnography. Daukantas was also the first to formulate in Lithuanian the rules of the Lithuanian grammar. He made significant contributions to almost every field of 19th-century Lithuanian philology: he wrote historical works, grammar books, and a prayer-book. He also collected and published folklore, prepared special booklets for farmers, compiled dictionaries, translated fiction and historical writings. Nevertheless, Daukantas is viewed as a tragic figure because he did not live to see his ideas develop into a national philosophy and many of his works were not printed during his lifetime.
- Daukantas was born in 1793 in Samogitia (Zemaitija), an ethnic region in western Lithuania. Two years after his birth, Russia completely occupied Lithuania, and Daukantas grew up and live in an oppressed country. He traversed Lithuania on foot to study at Vilnius University. Having obtained forged papers establishing his nobility, he was one of few persons of peasant stock who graduated from the University. Daukantas died at the end of 1864, after the suppression of the 1863 uprising against czarist rule. Just before his death, Daukantas learned about the ban on the Lithuanian press which would be enforced for the next 40 years.
- The name of Simonas Daukantas and his works were revived by the following generation of writers, linguists, historians, and politicians. To this day, many Lithuanian historians support Daukantas' ideas against serfdom, national suppression, and his denouncement of the Crusaders' incursions on Lithuania. Most importantly, Daukantas revealed the significance of political independence for the development of Lithuania's national identity.
- One of the squares in the Old town of Vilnius, which was earlier named after of foreign army commanders, such as Napaleon and Kutuzov, is now dedicated to Simonas Daukantas, the Father of Lithuania's national revival.
From: Lithuania in the World, January – February, 1994. Page : 9
Davainis-Silvestraitis, Mecislovas (1849-1919), writer and folklorist, born in Zieveliskiai, county of Raseiniai, on April 8, 1849. He attended the high school at Kaunas and Kedainiai from 1860-1863. During the ban on the Lithuanian press (1864-1904) he contributed to newspapers published in East Prussia (Lithuania Minor) and the United States. When the ban was lifted, he wrote for various Lithuanian newspapers while in Vilnius, and from 1908-1914 edited the Lithuanian newspapers Litwa (Lithuania) and Lud (People), written in Polish. In his articles and poems he glorified Lithuanias past, urged Lithuanians to love their country and their language. He had the following works of poetry published: Tevynainiu giesme (Hymn of the Patriots, Ragaine,1884) and Palemonas ir Girgzduta (Palemonas and Girgzduta, Plymouth, 1904). His sentimental, romantic poetry is of little literary worth, but at that time it had a meaning for the awakening of the Lithuanian national consciousness. He published Lithuanian folklore, which he himself collected, on Polish and Russian journals. He collected some 700 folk-tales, more than 1,000 folk-songs and about 3,000 pieces of folklore. A part of the material survived in the archives of the Russia Geographical Society and the Lithuanian Academy of Sciences. He published Patarles ir dainos (Proverbs and Songs, Tilze, 1899) and a collection of Samogitian folk-tales in a Polish translation (Podania Zmujdzkie, I-II, Warszawa, 1894). He died in Vilnius on May 31, 1919.
DAUKANTAS, Simonas (1793-1864). Historian. He was a pioneer of the Lithuanian national revival.
He was born to a peasant family in the village of Kalviai, Samogitia, on October 28, 1793. He entered the University of Vilnius in 1818, studied languages and literature for two years, and then philosophy, law and history. Daukantas received his master of philosophy degree in Jan. 1825, and went to Prussia, where he collected historical material on the past of Lithuania in the Königsberg archives. In December of 1825 he began to work, as a translator in the Governor generals office in Riga. He spends ten years in this post. From march 1835 he lived from fifteen years in the capital Russia, St. Petersburg, working in the Senate office and archives, where important Lithuanian state documents of the 15th-18th century were kept and he had the opportunity of studying them. He did not return to his post in St. Petersburg after his summer vacation of 1850, which he spends in Lithuania. Being unmarried, he was able Bishop M. Valancius. From 1861 Daukantas was looked after by the rector of Papile, rev. Ignas Vaisvila, who was arrested at the time of the 1863 insurrection. On his release he returned to Papile to find Daukantas abandoned by everyone and fallen ill; he died on Nov. 24, 1864. Twenty years after his death Rev. Vaisvila placed a memorial stone at Daukantas. ( )
In independent Lithuania (in 1930) a monument to him by the sculptor Vincas Grybas was erected in Papile.
Daukantas was the first to write a history in Lithuanian. While still a student he wrote Darbai senuju lietuviu ir zemaiciu (The deeds of Ancient Lithuanians and Samogitians, 1822). He wrote Istorija zemaitiska (A Samogitian History, 1838), Budas senoves lietuviu kalnenu ir zemaiciu (The Character of the Ancient Lithuanians and Samogitians), etc.
DAUKSA, Mikalojus (?-1613), Roman Catholic priest, the first known writer from Lithuania Major. Hardly any authentic information about his life, date of birth or education has survived. Besides his own published works, in which there is no biographical material, the more important sources which help to acquaint us with him to same degree as a man and priest are the description of the official visitation of the Samogitian bishopric in 1579, and official, mostly judicial, documents. From these we known that he was born between 1527 and 1538 in Babenai, near Kedainiai, and that he was descended from the petty nobility. In 1570 he was appointed rector of Krakes; in 1572 he became a canon and moved to Varniai. In 1580 he was appointed to chaplainy of Kraziai as priest emeritus (receiving a benefice from the parish but not serving it). From 1585-1592 he filled the office of diocesan official to the Samogitian bishopric. In 1592 he changed parishes and moved from Krakes, of which he had been in charge only indirectly through helpers, to Betygala. With the death of Bishop M. Giedraitis in 1609, Dauksa was elected administrator of the Samogitian bishopric. He lived to see the appointment of a new bishop, made his will on Feb. 13, 1613 and died a few days later.
Dauksas first work, and at the same time the first known Lithuanian book to appear in Lithuania Major, was a translation of a catechism by J. Ledesma, the title of which was Katechismas arba mokslas kiekwienam Krikszczionii privalus (A Catechism or Study Indispensable to Every Christian), published in Vilnius in 1595. This catechism was not translated from the Spanish original bur from a Polish translation, which in its turn was translated from Italian. The Polish translation was aimed at children, while Dauksa in translating the work changed the title and dedicated it to all. E. Volteris published a new edition of Dauksas catechism under the Russian title Litovskii katikhizis N. Daukshi. E. Sitting put out the same publication together with the Polish original and another anonymous Lithuanian translation of the same catechism in 1605 with the following title in German: der polnische Katechismus des Ledezma und die litauischen Katechismen des Daugsza und des Anonymus vom Jahre 1605 (Giottingen, 1929.)
Another, far larger and more well known work by Dauksa, is his translation of the small Postil by the Polish Jesuit Jakub Wujek (1541-1597), namely, Postilla catholic, tai est: Iguldymas Ewangeliu kiekvienos nedelos ir szwetes per wissus metus (Catholic Postill, that is, An Explanation of the Gospels for Every Sunday and Holiday Throughout the Year, Vilnius 1599). This was quite a thigh book (644 pp.) printed in folio. The Lithuanian text was printed in the Gothic alphabet, but some places are in antique. There are two prefaces at the beginning – one in Latin and other in Polish. The Latin preface is dedicated in the first place to Bishop M. Giedraitis, Dauksas patron, and collaborator, to honour him for his various services, particularly in publishing the Lithuanian translation of the postil. The preface written in polish, dedicated to the gracious reader (Pol. Przedmowa do chytelnika laskawego), can be considered in a sense a patriotic manifesto. Here Dauksa raised as of the utmost importance the natural right of all peoples, and so of the Lithuanians, to use their native language, and acknowledged the equality of all languages, emphasising the importance of the native language in social life. Further on he expresses the wish that the Lithuanian language should be used everywhere: in the church, the chancery, among the nobles and priests, and so on. In both of these prefaces he holds the Lithuanian translation to be his own work, but certain philologists (k. Began, E. Tangle, E. Sittin and others) have been inclined to consider it to be the work of several translators. Later, when Dauksas place of birth was determined and the language of his translation was compared to the speech of the people of that area, it was concluded that Dauksa alone translated the catechism and the postill.
The Language of Dauksas Translations
The language of Dauksas translations differs from other Lithuanian writings. Many very old words are used in them but not found anywhere else, e. g. siutilme (fury, rage), sokoras (sugar), unguras (Hungarian). Many Slavic loan words were changed to Lithuanian ones, e. g. in place of griekas (sin), pekla (hell), zivatas (womb), the following are used: nuodeme or nuodzia, paragaras, iscia. Particularly abounded use is made of synonyms or parallelisms, e. g. mirimas, mirtis, martuve, giltine (death). We find a wealth of archaic grammatical and especially morphological features in Dauksas language. Finally, the whole text of the translations is accented, and there are many archaisms in his accentuation not to be found any longer in the modern dialects, or only occasional traces remain here and there. For this reason the language of Dauksas writings is of great importance for the study of Lithuanian, in particular with reference to the history and accentuation of the language.
The importance of the language of Mikalojus Dauksas writings increased to a marked degree with the publication of his principal work, the translation of the Postill, in a photocopied edition by the University of Lithuania in Kaunas in 1926. The earlier edition by E. Volteris, published by the Russian Academy of Sciences in 1904-1927, was of limited importance, since only three fascicles (456 pp.) came out, and, furthermore, these were not in the original orthography but transliterated into the Latin alphabet.
DAVAINIS-Silvestraitis, Mecislovas (1849-1919), writer and folklorist, born in Zieveliskiai, county of Raseiniai, on April 8, 1849. He attended the high school at Kaunas and Kedainiai from 1860-63. During the ban on the Lithuanian press (1864-1904) he contributed to newspapers published in East Prussia (Lithuania Minor) and the United States. When the ban was lifted, he wrote for various Lithuanian newspapers while in Vilnius, and from 1908-14 edited the Lithuanian newspapers Litwa (Lithuania) and Lud (People), written in Polish. In his articles and poems he glorified Lithuanias past, urged Lithuanians to love their country and their language. He had the following works of poetry published: Tevynainiu giesme (Hymn of the Patriots, Ragaine, 1884) and Palemonas ir Girgzduta (Palemonas and Girgzduta, Plymouth, 1904). His sentimental, romantic poetry is of little literary worth, but at that time it had a meaning for the awakening of the Lithuanian national consciousness. He published Lithuanian folklore, which he himself collected, on Polish and Russian journals. He collected some 700 folk-tales, more than 1,000 folk songs and about 3,000 pieces of folklore. A part of the material survived in the archives of the Russia Geographical Society and the Lithuanian Academy of Sciences. He published Patarles ir dainos (Proverbs and Songs, Tilze, 1899) and a collection of Samogitian folk-tales in a Polish translation (Podania zmujdzkie, I-II, Warszawa, 1894). He died in Vilnius on May 31, 1919.
- GIEDRAITIS, Merkelis (ca 1536-1609), bishop of Samogitia with residence in Medininkai (later called Varniai). Born into an aristocratic family, he studied intermittently at several Prussian and German universities: Königsberg in 1550, Wittenberg and Tiubingen from 1560-1563 Leipzig from 1563. Ordained priest in 1571, he was elevated the next year to chapter prelate of the diocese of Vilnius. The death of the bishop of Samogitia in 1574 marked the beginning of a two-year long struggle to make Giedraitis his successor. Giedraitis opponent was a pole supported by the primmer of Poland, Ushanski. Finally Giedraitis prevailed because he possessed the asset of knowing well the Lithuanian language, and was consecrated bishop in 1576 in Vilnius.
Giedraitis found his diocese, which encompassed all of western and central Lithuania, under the influence of Protestantism and in a rather disordered state generally. However, the extreme contention of some writers that there were no more than 7 priests in the entire diocese at that time has been refuted by new research. Sources of the time show that the diocese actually had about 20 priests and 40 parishes, but this facts was obscured by the prevailing practice of having one priest administer several parishes for proprietary reasons. Executing the resolutions of the Council of Trent (1545-1563), Giedraitis put an end this abusive arrangement, took steps to increase the number of priests and to establish new parishes, propagated religious education and promoted the publishing of religious books in Lithuanian. Among his co-workers was Canon Dauksa (g. v), who in 1595 edited a catechism, the first Lithuanian book to be published in Lithuania Proper. Giedraitis also financed Dauksas Postilla (1599), whose preface emphasised the importance of the Lithuanian language. His efforts brought the Jesuits to Kraziai, resulting in the establishment of the first monastery in Samogitia. Giedraitis helped found and was a protector of the Academy of Vilnius (established in 1579). He supported the education of 12 clerics at the Theological Seminary of Vilnius and sought to open a seminary in his own diocese, a project realised only after his death. As a member of the Council of Lords he defended the independence of Lithuania from Polish attempts to restrict it following the Union of Lublin in 1569. He appointed M. Stryjkowski (q.v.). a member of the laity, to his chapter, thereby supporting the writing of Stryjkowskis Chronicle (1582), a work recounting deeds from Lithuanias past. One of his countrys great bishops, Giedraitis died in Varniai on April 6, 1609.
The historian Zenonas Ivinskis, basing him on documents he found in archives at Rome, wrote an important study Merkelis Giedraitis (1955), which is still in manuscript from.
ALEKSAS GIRDENIS. A well-known Vilnius University professor, Aleksas Girdenis, 61, is an authority in the field of dialectology. In 1964, still at the beginning of his career, together with a co-author, he classified contemporary Lithuanian dialects.
- His Phonology (1983) and The Basic Theoretical Principles of Phonology (1995) are of fundamental importance to the science of the sounds of the Lithuanian language.
- Researching into the peculiarities of his native zemaiciu dialect (the dialect of Samogitia, one of the countrys four ethnic regions, occupying the greater part of western Lithuania), Girdenis hid a tape recorder in the wall of his parents house in his home town near Telsiai to record the language of his close family. In this way he obtained over 400 hours of spoken language which he used for his book on the local dialect published in 1996.
- The professor says that he has been collecting material for this book since 1968.
- Im a native of Samogitia. We are famous for our accuracy and meticulousness, traits which have served me well in the field of phonology and phonetics.
- The universitys Department of General Linguistics, headed by Professor Girdenis, is jokingly called the department of Samogitian linguistics: most of his colleagues are from Samogitia and speak their native dialect among themselves.
- To be a phonetician you need keen hearing and to be good at mathematics and literature, says Girdenis. He won a prize at a nationwide physicists competition while still at secondary school. He also used to play the violin and wrote poems in his native dialect.
- I started writing verses at the age of ten and it must have influenced my decision to choose Lithuanian language studies at Vilnius University, Girdenis says.
- He still writes poetry in his native dialect. This spring saw the publication of a collection of verses in the dialect. Edited by Professor Aleksas Girdenis himself, the book includes several of his own poems.
(From LITHUANIA IN THE WORLD, No 2, 1998)
GRYBAS, Vincas (1890-1941), sculptor, born in Peleniai, county of Sakiai, on Oct. 3, 1890. He studied at the Warsaw Art School and took part in the illegal Lithuanian self-education circle. Drafted into the Russian army, he saw caught in the events of the Russian
Revolution he supported. After his return to Lithuania in 1918, he studied at the Kaunas Art School (1923-25) and went on to specialize at A. Bourdelle's Academy in Paris (1925-28). Perhaps his best achievements is the bronze monument of Simonas Daukantas in the town of Papile, a result of painstaking historical research, yet vibrantly alive in its sense of drama, psychological insight, convincing simplicity. He also created numerous busts, bas-reliefs, and medallions. His Parisian studies notwithstanding, Grybas remained largely untouched by modernism. His limitation, inherent in the realistic academic style, was partly balanced by his expressiveness and power. A sympathizer with the communist system, he was killed by the Germans after the outbreak of the Nazi-Soviet war, on July 3, 1941, in Jurbarkas. His life is depicted in the novel Sunkus paminklai (Heavy Monuments), 1961, by Kazys Boruta.
- EDUARDAS JONUSAS. From the painter's life. Eduardas Jonusas was born in the Mazeikiai region in 1932. In 1941 his family emigrated to Germany and lived near Berlin till the end of the war.
- On the way back to Lithuania, he got lost and was sent to prison in Gardinas. In 1946, when the Russians were trying to take him to a children's home, he ran away and turned to his grandparents in Mazeikiai. Recruited to the Red Army in 1951, he was sentenced as a "secret spy" to 25 years' imprisonment and 5 years' exile when the KGB found out about his past. He served time in a Chita prison, in concentration camps in Siberia and the Far East. He was given amnesty in 1956, but the KGB continued its watch over him. Having returned to Klaipeda where his mother lived, he never again saw his father and three brothers. Eduardas Jonusas lives in Nida.
- The first exhibition of his paintings was held at the Museum of ethnography in Klaipeda in 1957. His works have been displayed in various towns in Lithuania and Germany. Jonusas' paintings can be seen in private collections in Germany, the USA and Canada. Some of his wooden sculptures stand in Nida and Pervalka
From: "Lithuania in the World", Vol.4, No.1, 1996. Page: 41
- KAREVICIUS, Pranciskus (1861-1945) , the last bishop of Samogitia and titular archbishop of Scythopolis, born at Grasiunai, near Mosedis, county of Kretinga, on Sept. 30, 1861. From 1881-86 he studied at the Theological Seminary and Academy in St. Petersburg, Russia, where he gained his master's degree in theology. Ordained on May 17,1886, he taught moral theology and liturgy at the same academy for two years. In 1888 he was assigned to Samara where he ministered to Catholics of its five districts. There he founded a Catholic parish, a separate chapel for Lithuanians, and two chapels with schools for Germans. In 1892 Karevicius was recalled to St. Petersburg to serve as assistant and pastor (from 1908) at the procatedral of St. Catherine, also was professor and inspector at the Theological Seminary. Throughout his years in St. Petersburg, he defended the rights of Lithuanians and Latvians to use their native language in church services. He was raised to the rank of honorary canon and in 1910 to titular canon of the Mogilew metropolitan chapter. On Feb. 27, 1914, he was appointed bishop of Samogitia by Pope Pius X and consecrated at St. Petersburg on May 17 the same year.
- With his ingress into the Cathedral of Kaunas, the orientation at the top level of the diocese clearly changed to Lithuanian. Until than the Polish had been more prevalent as a result of Lithuania's polonization and as a sign of higher social standing. The Poles of diocese began to lodge complains against Bishop Karevicius. He was summoned to Rome to answer the charges. He justified his action as the adherence to the native language of the people. At the same time he obtained permission from the Holly see to have church services in the district of Breslauja. World War I broke out on his return to Lithuania Russians forbidden to recite in Kaunas. He settled in Panevezys, but because of failing health went to the Caucasus to undergo medical treatment. He returned to Kaunas when Germany occupied the city on Aug. 17, 1915.
- During the German occupation, Bishop Karevicius fought for the rights of his people, decrying their exploitation for labour in Germany and the suppression of cultural activities.
- When in 1917 the Vilnius National Conference elected the Council of Lithuania to seek independence for the country, Bishop Karevicius helped to achieve this goal. He went to Germany in 1918 and was able to dispose influential (?) personalities more favourably toward Lithuanian independence. He administered the oath of allegiance to the very first Lithuanian army regiments, dedicated the Military Academy, and participated in the opening ceremonies of the Constituent Assembly (May 15,1920).
- He governed the diocese of Samogitia for twelve years. Until World War I it was the largest in the country.
- Karevicius devoted a considerable amount of his time to education, charity, temperance, religious and cultural organizations. He wrote articles on religious and moral topics in the periodical press. He was one of the most learned theologians in Lithuania.
- Bishop Karevicius took the first steps to have Lithuania recognized as a separate ecclesiastical province. As a result of this in 1926, the boundaries of the diocese were readjusted and the diocese of Samogitia ceased to exist. Part of its territory was assigned to the archdiocese of Kaunas. Bishop Karevicius, then retired (Feb. 22,1926), was designed titular archbishop of Scythopolis (March 23) and entered the Marian Order (July 9). Residing at the monastery in Marijampole, he continued with his pastoral work. He died in Marijampole on May 30, 1945, and as the last bishop of Samogitia was buried in Kaunas Cathedral.
- KAUKAITE, Giedre (1944-), soprano. A graduate of the Music School of Vilnius in 1968, she furthered her voice studies at the Theatre la Scala in Milan, and gave concerts in Rome, Turin, Genoa, and Venice, as well as Milan. She won first prize in the Glinka voice competition of the Soviet Union. In 1972 she made appearance in the United States at New York, Chicago, and Los Angeles. Kaukaite has been a regular performer with the Vilnius Opera. Her more notable roles include Marguerite in Faust, Mimi in La Bohemia, Tatiana in Eugene Onegin, Michaela in Carmen, Desdemona in Atoll. She sings with a lucid, strong voice, admirable for its artistic quality.
- KAVOLIS, Martynas Arminas (1897-19), jurist and Protestant minister, born in Gargzdai, county of Kretinga, on Nov. 14, 1897. He graduated from the Law School of the University of Kaunas in 1925. In 1943 he continued his law studies at the University of Berlin; during 1944-49 he studied philosophy and theology at the University of Tubingen, Germany. He began his jurist career in 1923 as a judicial candidate at the regional court in Kaunas. He was later appointed an investigating magistrate of important cases and an assistant state prosecutor (1927-40). During 1935-36 he lectured on ecclesiastical law at the University of Kaunas, Department of Protestant Theology. From 1944 because of Soviet occupation he lived for a time in Germany; later immigrated to Canada. Ordained in 1953, he organized a Lithuanian Lutheran congregation there. From 1953-58 he was pastor of the Lithuanian Lutheran parish in Toronto. In 1958 he left congregation to accept a teaching position in the USA.
- LASTAUSKIENE, Marija (nee Ivanauskaite; 1872-1957), writer, known by the pen name Lazdynu Peleda (Owl of the Hazels) , born in Siauliai on May 15, 1872. She grew up on the family estate in Paragiai, where she lived, intermittently, foe a long time. Having learned to sew foe a time she supported herself by this skill in Warsaw and St. Petersburg. Later she lived in Riga, Vilnius, and Kaunas. She died on July 19, 1957 in Kaunas. She was married to the Belorussian journalist Vaclau Lastouski, but they divorced after a few years.
- Her choice of Polish literature as her reading material and a life of tribulation caused her to be a sentimental idealist, who showed sympathy for life's unfortunates and criticized their exploiters. These feelings are evident in her writings.
- She began writing poems and stories in Polish at the age seventeen. Her first story, Bez steru (Without a Rudder) , was published in a Warsaw newspaper under the name of Maria Iwanowska. Influenced by her elder sister, Sofija Psibiliauskiene, she began to write for the Lithuanian periodical press. Marija wrote in Polish, while Sofija freely translated the works into Lithuanian; the writings were published under the pen name Lazdynu Peleda, used in common by both sisters. Short stories under that name were first published in 1905. Up to the present it has not been determined which stories belong to which sister. By Lastauskienes statement of 1947, she authored 20 of the short stories. The best of these is Poilsis (Rest, 1908), but it is not clear how much of Sofija's work it contains. Marija Lastauskiene's first longer story, published under her own name, is Auka (Sacrifice, 1907-08), and her first novel is Sviesa ir seseliai (Light and Shadows, 1925-26). After her sister Sofija's death on 1926, Lastauskiene wrote in Lithuanian with her daughter Stase generally correcting the language. In this manner were written the short story Radybos (Reward, 1930) , the childrens stories Gyvenimo perlai (Pearls of Life, 1934), the novel Iki mirties (Until Death, 1939) , the novella Laimes griuvesiuose (On the Ruins of Good Fortune, 1940) , and the short story Upes dovana (The River's Gift, 1946) . Under the common pen name Lazdynu Peleda, she complete works of the two sisters were published during 1921-40 in six volumes, and in 1954-55 in seven volumes, the sixth of which consists solely of the writings of Lastauskiene.
- From 1907 they were widely printed in Lithuania newspapers and journals, which required short, specialised stories containing a vivid, intriguing plot.
- LAUCIUS (Laucevicius), Stasys (1897-1965), dramatist and poet, born in Kelme, county of Raseiniai, on Oct. 11, 1897. He fought in the Lithuanian Independence War (1918-1920) and achieved the rank of captain. Until his departure from Lithuania in 1944, he taught in primary schools and was active as a free-lance journalist. Under the pseudonym Stella, he authored the number of humorous and satirical poems on civil and political topics. After a spell in Germany and England, he went to the United States. He died in Chicago on June 15, 1965. Among his collections of verse are Pirmoji banga (The First Wave), 1927, and Respublika 1961. His plays include Zydinti zeme (The Blossoming Earth), 1937; Signalas (The Signal), 1938; and Raudonoji melodija (The Red Melody), 1951. Topical and melodramatic, they received several prizes and were popular with amateur theatre groups.
- LIATUKAS, Pranas (1876- after 1941), general of the Lithuanian army, born in Padievaiciai, county of Raseiniai, on Jan. 29, 1876. After graduating from the Vilnius Military Academy in 1905, he served in the Russian army until 1918, when he was discharged as colonel and returned to his native country. He joined the Lithuanian army as a volunteer and on Dec. 24, 1918 was appointed chief of the General Staff. In March 1919 he was appointed commander of the Third Regiment of Infantry; then in May he became commander of the Ukmerge detachment, with which he fought the Bolshevik invaders. In 1919 he was promoted lieutenant general and appointed acting commander in chief of the Lithuanian armed forces, and successfully led the campaign against the Bermondists. Simultaneously, from Oct. 7, 1919 to April 13, 1920 Liatukas was acting minister of defense. After the Wars of Independence he retired from the army and entered civilian service. He was arrested by the Communists in 1941 and deported to Siberia.
- LINKEVICIUS, Mykolas (1909-1941), poet, born in Plauginiai, county of Raseiniai, on April 28, 1909. He attended, without completing, a seminar for priests and studied literature at the University of Kaunas. In addition to his collections of verse, Zydryniu atspindziuose (In the Reflections of Azure Skies), 1929, and Ateina Dievas (The Lord Comes), 1936, he was represented in several anthologies and published articles on literature. Nostalgia for rural landscapes, search for God, and urban bohemians are the main themes of his poems, which are suffused with gentle melancholy. He died in Kaunas on Jan. 12, 1941.
- MACERNIS, Vytautas (1920-1944), poet born in Sarnele, county of Telsiai, on June 6, 1920, of peasant stock. He studied English and Lithuanian literature at the University of Vilnius from 1940-43. In addition to formal studies, Macernis, an avid reader, acquainted himself with the full scope of world literature, and at the age of 23, mastered seven foreign languages. In high school at the university, Macernis took part in various literary activities. A stray shell as the Soviet armies advancing into the country, on Sept. 7, 1944 killed him.
- Macernis left behind a small number of short lyric and some longer unfinished poems. The only completed cycle of poems called Vizijos (Visions), written between 1939 and 1942, must be considered as the central body of his work. This cycle is sustained by an intense emotion of longing for the poets country home and his youth therein, arching like a rainbow across time and distance, though not across the abyss of exile which Macernis did not know. The cycle operates on several planes of reality, which are like deepening laves of introspection and visions where symbolic moments of the past interpenetrate with the landscapes of the present, transforming them into a radiance troubled only by dark, prophetic shadows of the future. In these show moving, painfully focussed poems one can perceive echoes of Western existentialists attitudes and poette idiom, particularly that of Onear (?) Milosz. In this respect, Macernis was one of the wartime innovators in Lithuanian poetry, giving it a tone and direction which found its most powerful expression in the work of these post-war poets in exile who belonged to the so-called Zeme (Earth) collective.
- Although Macernis had too little time to fullfil his talent, this achievement is significant for the future development of Lithuanian verse and often particularly valuable in itself, by conveying to the reader both a depth of thought and a pleasing aesthetic experience. Translations: "Vytautas Macernis, 'Visions'," Lituanus, Vol. 15, No. 4, 1969, pp. 55-74. Translated by Leta Januseviciute-Kelertiene.
- MACKEVICIUS, Antanas (1828-1863), insurrection leader, Roman Catholic priest, born in Morkiai, county of Raseiniai, on June 14, 1828. His father was Thaddeus Mackevicius, a petty noble. At the age of twelve, he started his six years studies in the lyceum in Vilnius. His livelihood he earned by occasional services in a monastery. After he went to Kijev and studied for 2 years at the University. About 1850 Mackevicius entered the Samogitian diocesan seminary in Varniai and was ordained a Roman Catholic priest. At first he was an assistant at Krekenava, and later administrator of the filial church at Paberze, county of Kedainiai. Jacob Gieysztor the future head of the underground government, was his parishioner. In the summer of 1862 he visited Czestochovo, the site of a famous shrine in Poland, and stayed with the Capuchin Father Maxim Tareiva (from Prienai, Lithuania), who was later hanged by the Russians at Konin in Poland July 19, 1864.
- Returning to his parish, Mackevicius activated his campaign among the peasants to prepare them for an armed insurrection. In summer of 1862 Mackevicius made his acquaintance with Constantine Kalinowski. In collaboration with the "Red" Lithuania Commitee headed by Kalinowski, Mackevicius formed a guerrilla unit of 50-70 men and invited Boleslas Kolyszko, graduate of the Polish officer school at Cuneo in Garibaldi's Italy, to give him military instruction and to train his men. Mackevicius subordinated his unit to Sierakowski, the captain of the Imperial general Staff. After a number of successful engagements, the Lithuanians suffered a serious setback in the 3-days battle (May 7-9, 1863) at Medeikiai in the county of Birzai. For some time Mackevicius eluded all Russian ambushed and the units assigned by Governor General Michail Muraviev to pursue him. Mackevicius and two companions were seized to the Russians on Dec. 17, 1863 while attempting to cross the Nemunas River into Suduva. According to some sources, he spurned the offer of his life in exchange for information about his organisation. He died on the gallows on Dec. 28, 1863 in Kaunas.
- According to the Soviet line, Mackevicius was mentioned as strongly influenced by Russian revolutionaries. There was no evidence to support this claim.
- He described to his captors the brutality, corruption, injustice and ineffectiveness of the Russian administration and all the system. On the other hand Mackevicius stressed that he bore no enmity toward the Russian people, and wished them freedom.
- MAIRONIS (actual name Jonas Maciulis (1862-1932), poet of the national revival, born at the estate of Pasandravys, county of Raseiniai, on Oct. 21, 1862. Having graduated from the Russian high school at Kaunas, he began studding literature at the University of Kiev in 1883. No satisfied with his lectures and the spirit of the students there, he withdrew. From 1884-88 he attended the Kaunas Theological Seminary, and from 1888-92 he studied at the Theological Academy of St. Petersburg, which awarded him a master's and a doctor's degree in theology. He stayed on at the later institution from 1894-1909 as inspector and professor of moral theology. In 1909 he took up a position as rector of the Kaunas Theological Seminary. He addressed the seminarians publicly in the Lithuanian language, thus breaking the custom of using only Polish of Latin. At the same time he supported the cultural end eavours of Lithuanian organizations beyond the walls of the seminary. Upon the founding of the University of Kaunas in 1922 he was professor and taught theology as well as (for a time) Lithuanian and world literatures. He received an honorary doctorate in literature in 1932. Earlier he had been raised to the office of prelate of the Samogitian diocesan chapter and to the rank of Promontory Apostolic. He retained rector ship of the seminary until his death on June 28, 1932. He is buried at the cathedral of Kaunas.
- Maironis creative activity began in his student days at the Kaunas Theological Seminary. Antanas Baranauskas, auxiliary bishop of Samogitia, influenced him there. In the world literature Maironis admired the Russian poets Puskin and Lermontov, the Poles Slowacki and Mickewicz and the German Shiller.
- His first poem Lietuvos vargas (Lithuana's Sorrow), later changed to Miskas uzia (The forest Sighs), was published in the underground news paper Ausra (The Dawn), in 1885. Maironis' first work had to be published in Tilze (Tilsit).
- Lietuvos istorija (History of Lithuania), as the first book was published by the pen name Stanislovas Zanavykas in 1891. His first collection of poems Pavasario balsai (Voices of Spring) appeared in 1895 under the pseudonym Maironis.
- In his description of the Lithuanian past he idealized the old Lithuanian State and its illustrious rulers of the 13th-16th centuries, especially Vytautas the Great.
- In 1895 he also published a new collection entitled Jaunoji Lietuva (Young Lithuania). Maironis also composed satirical poem Raseiniu Magde (Magdelyn of Raseiniai, 1909), Musu vargai (Our Sorrows, 1920). In the period of Lithuanian independence, Maironis was attracted by historical drama and created a trilogy of this type: Kestucio mirtis (Death of Kestutis, 1921), Vytatautas pas Kryziuocius (Vytautas with the Knights of the Chross, 1924) and Vytautas karalius (Vytautas the King, 1930).
- The development and significance of Maironis 'art is most clearly reflected in his collection Pavasario balsai, which six ever-expanding editions were published prior his death.
- Elegiac and heroic experience is closest to Maironis' lyric talent. The elegy arises out of the contrast between ideal and reality, between reason and heart.
- A fighting spirit asserted itself more powerfully in his patriotic poetry, with its characteristic militant enthusiasm, its call to struggle, its optimism and faith, its heroic pathos and rhetoric.
- To Maironis also belonged the specific ability to speak in aphorisms and fervid pronouncements whose certitude invited no doubt or dispute.
- He was the first Lithuanian poet to use tonic verse, opening up more ways of creating music in poetry. His poems were acceptable to the ordinary reader because of their musical, straightforward lucid structure. Then and later, many Lithuanian composers set his verse to music, beginning with Ceslovas Sasnauskas, Juozas Naujalis, Algirdas Kacanauskas and Juozas Tallat-Kelpsa.
- In the introduction to a selected edition of his writing (1956) it was recognized that " the best poetic works of Maironis have become an irreplaceable part of Lithuania's culture heritage".
- MARTINAITIS, Marcelijus (1936-), poet, born in Paserbentys, county of Raseiniai, on April 1, 1936. He graduated from the Polytechnical Institute of Kaunas in 1956, but worked as a reporter. Later he studied the Lithuanian language and literature at the University of Vilnius, graduating in 1964. He worked on the editorial staff of several periodicals: Komjaunimo Tiesa (The Truth of Komsomol), Jaunimo Gretos (Ranks of Youth), Kulturos Barai (Domains of Culture). Martinaitis is the author of the following collections of poetry: Balandzio sniegas (April Snow); Debesu laiptais (Along the Stairway of Clouds), 1966; Saules graza (The chuckle of the Sun), 1969. He exiles as a poet of nature and rustic life. His poetry integrates motives and images from contemporary language and folklore. Some of his poems are curious creations of sorrowful moods, and possess an air of the naivete and the primitivism found in traditional folksongs and dirges. The prevailing tone is pensive. In his poetic analysis of everyday occurrence, he probes into the very existence of man and the things surrounding him. He has contributed critical essays to Lithuanian periodicals on literature. Some of his poems have been translated into Latvian, Polish and Russian.
- MAZALAITE (Gabiene), Nele (1907-19), storywriter and poetess bore in Darbenai, county of Kretinga, on Aug. 20, 1907. Her first literary works were published in various Kaunas periodicals around 1929, while she was employed as an office worker. For the next four decades she remained popular as a frequent contributor of novelettes, stories, legends, and poems to several periodicals in Lithuania, and later in Germany (1945-50), the United States, and Canada. Collection of novelettes and legendary stories have been
- Published under the following titles: Pajurio moterys (Women of the Seaside, 1929); Miestas, kurio nera (The City Which Does Not Exist, 1939); Karaliu ugnys (Fires of the Kings, 1942); Legendos apie ilgesi (Legends about Longing, 1948); Apversta valtis (An Overturned Boat, 1948); Gintariniai vartai (The Amber Gate, 1952). Her novels and collections of stories are Menuo vadinamas medaus (The Month Called Honey, 1951); Saules takas (The Path of the Sun, 1954); Negestis (Eternal Freshness, 1955); Pjuties metas (Harvest Time, 1956) and Miestelis, kuris buvo mano (The Town Which was Mine, 1966), whose second part was prepared for publication a few years later.
- Mazalaite is one of the most productive and original Lithuanian women writers. In her early works she had already developed an easily rezognisable, personal style which was elegant sensitive, abundant in poetical images, and contained an impressionistic sentence structure which was not hampered by traditional grammatical rules. A romantic mood and idealistic characters mark the original world of her works. Her characteristic genre is the legendary story. The stories are religious and patriotic in theme. For her legendary story collection, Gintariniai vartai, the Lithuanian Writers Association voted Mazalaite their award, the most
- Prestigious such distinction amongst Lithuanian writers in exile.
- MAZVYDAS, Martynas (?-1563), Luteran priest and author of the first Lithuanian book (1547). His date of birth and place of origin are unknown, but from his works and other secondary sources it is surmised that he came from Lithuania Major, and was a well- educated man even before entering the University of Konigsberg, where he joined the Reformation movement and was subsequently persecuted. He was originally invited to Lithuania Minor by the Prussian Duke Albert of Brandenburg to study at the university (1546-48), which he completed with a bachelor's degree; then he became a pastor in Ragaine. In 1554 he was raised to the rank of archdeacon. Mazvydas died in Ragaine on May 21, 1563.
- As a student at the University, he prepared the Lithuanian Catechism (originally Catechismusa prasty Szadei), published by the Weinreich press in Konigsberg (Karaliaucius) in 1547. The booklet, printed in Gothic characters, contains 79 pages with an introductory Latin stanza Ad Magnum Ducatum Litvaiae, dedicating the work to Lithuania (Lithuania Clara). A preface in Latin by the chancellor of the University of Konigsberg, F. Staphylus, is addressed to Lithuanian priests, (Pastoribus et Ministris Ecclesiarhm in Lithuania), indicating that the catechism was not primarily intended foe the semi-literate common people. Staphylus regretfully acknowledges that paganism has not been completely eradicated from Lithuania, where the people still worship the gods Perkunas, Laukosargis, and Zemepatis. A second preface written in verse by Mazvydas, whose authorship is indicated with an acrostic, further condemns paganism and emphasised brotherly love and concern for religious training. The two prefaces are followed by a short elementary section (originally Pygus ir trumpas mokslas skaityti ir rasyti), the only Lithuanian primer until the 18th century, showing Mazvydas interest in Furthering Lithuanian education among the people. The rest of the booklets contain the actual catechism and eleven religious hymns by various authors.
- As the first Lithuanian book, the Catechism is an important historical document and source for research in Lithuanian language and culture. It was reprinted by Albert Bezzenberger (1874), George Gerbils (1922,1923), and the Lithuanian Academy of Arts and Sciences (Pirmoji lietuviska knyga), Kaunas, 1947. There are only two known original copies: one in Lithuania in the library of the University of Vilnius, received in 1947 from the library of Odessa, the second in Poland. Before World War II, another original was located in the library at Konigsberg, bound in a volume of seven catechisms.
- Mazvydas also prepared a hymnal Gesmes Chrikszokas (Christian Hymns) published in two volumes (1566,1570) after his death. The book includes a total of 135 hymns translated from Latin and German by Mazvydas and other authors. His other works are translated of Te Deum Laudamus by St. Ambrose (Giesme S. Ambraziejaus, 1549); the rites for baptism (Forma Christima, 1599) from the German religious publication Kirchen Ordnung (1558); and a paraphrase of the "Lord's Prayer" (Paraphrasis, 1589). Through his many contributions, Mazvydas became father of Lithuanian press
A Dream House
By Gediminas Pilaitis
- There is a village in the Klaipeda region which tourists visit to see one of the most unusual farms in western Lithuania, to hear the howl of an iron wolf and the firing of a real cannon. Although a wooden club hangs from the farm gate, tourists, newlyweds and guests are always welcome.
- EVERYTHING WITH HIS OWN HANDS
- Twenty-five years ago folk artist Vytautas Majoras and his wife Birute moved from Klaipeda to the scattered village of Jurgiai when he realised that it was impossible for a wood carver to work in the city. Being raised in the country, he had always dreamt of having his own yard to work in. Since they moved in, the other houses have also been reclaimed.
In the village Majoras found a neglected farmstead where farmers had previously kept sheep. One end of the farmhouse had collapsed and very little of the roof remained, but enormous lime trees grew in the yard. Land reclamation workers had planned to raze the farm and no one believed that anything could still be done with it.
- First we rebuilt the walls of the house and plastered the white bricks, Majoras recounts. The barn became a workshop. Then I built a stone wall around the farm and turned the granary into a sauna. We uprooted the dead apple trees in the orchard, harrowed the soil and sowed a lawn. I made myself an efficient lawnmower which works better than any bought equipment.
- The house features a large hall with a purpose-built fireplace. I can even burn tyres in it, and the smoke and smell wont come into the house, explains Majoras. The hall floor is laid in red tiles, according to tradition in the Klaipeda region. A library is situated at the other end of the house. A replica antique staircase leads to the first floor. All of the trimmings and furniture were made by the craftsman himself.
- Majoras regrets that his farm stands on level ground. In order to vary the landscape, he dug out a pond where he can fish. The pond used to be visited by swans, but now a beaver has moved in and gnawed up some of the surrounding greenery. For many years a family of storks has lived in the top of one of the trees.
- COMFORT IS CREATED BY ORDER
- While in a labour camp in Siberia, exiled there by the Soviet government, he learned the craft of metalworking. He has erected two metal sculptures on his farm, the Iron Wolf and the Knight of Truth. The wolf is equipped with two ships sirens. When a mechanism is turned on, the wolf raises its head and howls so loudly it can be heard across the whole district.
- While making the knight, Majoras searched for a long time for a symbol of truth. The symbol of love is the heart, for faith it is the cross, for hope the anchor, he says. Finally, a priest suggested that truth could be symbolized by the All-Seeing Eye. Visitors are surprised when the knights head turns, but the symbol of truth engraved on his shield usually goes unnoticed.
- Majoras had a cannon cast at the Baltija Shipyard. If the gunpowder is good the cannonballs land half a kilommetre away in a well-protected clearing. It is fired to commemorate birthdays and national holidays. Majoras points out that city dwellers could never do anything like this.
- When asked about his future plans, the folk artist revealed one more of his dreams, to erect a three-headed, fire-spitting dragon on the farm. The design has already been completed. All he needs now is to find the materials, the tools and the time.
- (From LITHUANIA IN THE WORLD, No 2, 1998)
- NAGIUS-NAGEVICIUS, Valdas (1881-1954), physician and archaeologist, general in the Lithuanian army, born in Kretinga on June 17, 1881. He was a graduate of the Institute of Archaeology (1904) and the Military Academy of Medicine (1910), both in St. Petersburg, Russia. He participated in the revolutionary movement of 1905 and the Great Assembly of Vilnius. As a result he was arrested by the Russian administration and jailed in the prisons of Siauliai and Kaunas. In 1908, a secret Lithuanian organization, the Flaternitas Lithuanica, was established on his initiative at the Military Academy of Medicine. From 1910-17 he served with the Russian fleet in the Baltic and Black Seas. As Lithuania struggled for independence in 1918, he volunteered for the newly organized army and was appointed head of the medical corps. Except for short interval, he served in the capacity until the fall of 1940. Under his leadership, the Kaunas Army Hospital was founded in 1919. Nagevicius demonstrated a great deal of concern for invalids of the Lithuanian wars of independence.
- The Museum of War in Kaunas was also founded, headed and expanded by him.
- As an archaeologist, Nagius-Nagevicius studied ancient Lithuanian gravesites from 1904-12. Some of materials he gathered at that time are presently in the Hermitage in Leningrad as well as the Museum of History and ethnology in Vilnius. He participated in three major excavations of fortress hills: Prysmantai in 1923, Apuole in 1930-32, and Ipiltis in 1933-34. The results of his work are published in the following articles: Das Graberfeld von Prizmonti(Congressus secundus Archaeologorum Balticorum Rigae 1930, 1931), Prismanciu milzinkapis (The barrow of Prysmantai, Naujoji Romuva, 1931 and 1932), and Musu pajurio medziagine kultura (The Material Culture of Our Seacoast, Senove, I, 1935).
- When Soviet Russia occupied Lithuania Nagius-Nagevicius immigrated to the United States (1949). He settled in Willoughby, Ohio and died there on Sept. 15, 1954.
- NAGYS, Henrikas (1920-19), poet, essayist, and art critic born in Mazeikiai on Oct. 12, 1920. In 1940 he enrolled at the University of Kaunas as a student of architecture, but after a year turned to Lithuanian and German literature. When the university was closed in 1943 he continued his studies at the University of Innsbruck, Austria (1945-47) and at the University of Freiburg (1947-48), taking a doctorate in German literature in 1949 at the University of Innsbruck. From 1947-49 he taught German at LInstitute des Beaux-Arts at Freiburg, and after immigration to Canada he was a lecture at the Universite de Monreal. At present he is a teacher at an English-language school and a lecturer at the Seminar of Lithuanian studies in Monreal.
- He published his first verses in 1938. His first book Eilerasciai (Porms), published in 1946 in Innbruck, was awarded the literary prize of the Lithuanian publishing house Patria. This was followed by Lapkricio naktys (November Nights; Firebug 1947); Saules laikrodziai (The Sundial; Chicago, 1952); Melynas sniegas (The Blue Snow; Boston, 1960). Broliai balti aitvarai (Brothers White Aitvarai) published in 1969 in Chicago, was awarded the literary prize of the Lithuanian Writers Association in Exile. His poems have been translated into English, German, Estonian and Latvian. Nagys himself has translated German, American and Latvian poetry into Lithuanian.
- Technically, Nagys belongs to the neo-romantic literary movement of the middle 20th century, best represented among Lithuanian exile writers by the Zemininkai (Earth), a group to which he has given much of its calour, its angst and nostalgia, and its basic poetic reality – the emotional loss of a dream.
- He has enriched the traditional lyrical, graceful and light-caloured Lithuanian romanticism with darker, richer colours, with a dramatic tone emptied of romantic self-pity, and with the tragic dimensions of human destiny facing inescapable death.
- Nagys has contributed numerous essays, articles, book reviews and art critiques to periodicals and newspapers; he is a frequent and popular lecturer on literary and cultural topics. He served on the editorial board of the Lithuania literary review Literaturos Lankai (Folios of Literature) from 1952-59 and was editor-in-chief of the Monreal weekly newspaper Nepriklausoma Lietuva (Independent Lithuania) from 1968-70.
- NEZABITAUSKIS-ZABITIS, Kiprijonas (1779-1837), poet Roman Catholic priest, born in Baidotai, county of Kretinga, on Sept. 13, 1779. After graduating from Lithuanias Principal School at Vilnius in 1796, entered the Theological Seminary of Vilnius, transferred to the Seminary of Varniai in 1802, and was ordained in 1803. He served as pastor in the parishes of Jurbarkas and Varniai and headed the cathedral school of Varniai (1808-15). From 1815 he was pastor of Veliuona. In support of the 1831 insurrection he proclaimed in his church the appeals and decrees of the insurrectionists. Warned of his possible arrest, he retreated to Prussia, then went to Argentina, and finally settled in Strasbourg, France. Subsequently he accepted the invitation to direct a Polish emitter school in Nancy, where until his death on Aug. 10, 1837 he was chaplain, and teacher. The main literary work of Nezabitauskis is a collection of 19 poems, Eiliavimas liezuvyje lietuviskai-zemaitiskame (Versification in the Lithuanian-Samogitian Tongue), written in 1835 and dedicated to Adam Mickiewicz, Our common Lithuanian. He sent the manuscript to the library of Polish literature in Paris where it was first discovered by J. Gabrys-Parsaitis in 1909. Reflecting the radical, social, and political ideas of the Lithuanian intelligence at the tome of the 1831 uprising, the poem speak out against rulers and landlords, prophesy the uprising of the people of the world, and express the hope for liberty and equality in the future. Influenced by Western radicalism and the French Revolution, he was the first Lithuanian author to write verses of purely social and political comment. He translated into Lithuanian exerts from Parole dun crayon by F. Lamennais, a radical French priest.
- NEZABITAUSKIS-ZABITIS, Kajetonas (1800-1876), bibliographer, born in Baidotai, county of Kretinga, on Aug. 17, 1800. His family name was Zabitis, which he changed to Niezabitowski, as did his brother Kiprijonas. After attending high school at Zemaiciu Kalvarija and Kaunas, he studied at the University of Vilnius (1821-24). He kept in close touch with the members if the zemaiciai (Samogitians) cultural movement, especially with Dionizas Poska, toured Samogitia, investigated Lithuanian dialects, and collected antiquities. When the Russian government authorities began persecuting the students in Vilnius, he moved to Warsaw in 1825 and worked for the Ministry of Education as censor of books. He died in Warsaw on April 11, 1876. In Lithuania Nezabitauskis published the primer Naujas Mokslas skaitymo del mazu vaiku... (New Reading Lessons for Small Children, 1824). Appended to it was the first bibliography of Lithuanian books, Surinkimas visokiu rastu lietuvisku (Collection of Various Lithuanian writings), listing 73 titles of books and manuscripts from the year 1527 to 1824. Enlarging the bibliography he translated it into Polish and published it in a Vilnius daily. Living in Warsaw he wrote about the Lithuanian language and literature, mostly in Polish. However, his most important works remained unpublished: a Lithuanian-Samogitian-Polish dictionary (unfinished), a Lithuanian-Samogitian grammar, and a history of Lithuania and Samogitia. Most of the manuscripts were lost in Poland during World War II.
- OGINSKI Bogdan (1848-1909), landlord of Rietavas, son of Ireneus Oginski. He is best known for his orchestra and six-year school of music founded in Rietavas in 1872-72. Under the direction of Juozas Kalvaitis and especially under the Czech conductor Masek the orchestra reached a high level of performance; its repertoire included works by Haydn, Beethoven, and Mozart. After 1902 the orchestra gradually disbanded when Bogdan became mentally ill. With his death in 1909, the Oginski male family line ended.
- OGINSKI, Gabriel (1784-1842), colonel of the Napoleonic army. During Napoleons march to Moscow in 1812, he commanded a Lithuanian division. Subsequently he lived in Lithuania and concerned himself with educational affair. At the start of the 1831 uprising against Russia, he led the insurgents of the Trakai district, joining his group with a Polish detachment near Vilnius. Oginski was appointed vice-president and advisor on military affairs in the provisional government of Lithuania, formed by the leaders of the uprising. But the uprising proved unsuccessful, and Oginski left for Prussia and eventually reached Paris. In 1840, he was given permission to return to Lithuania. Subsequently, he was arrested in Vilnius, and died in prison after eleven months, on Dec. 15, 1842.
- OGINSKI,Gregory Anthony (d. 1709), elder of Samogitia, grand hetman of Lithuania. He was one of the leading figures of the so-called Republican party formed to overthrow the Sapieha family who were the ruling force in Lithuania at that time. This struggle led the country to a civil war which culminated in the battle of Valkininkai in 1700. The Sapieha faction was defeated and the family suffered a decisive blow. Subsequently, Oginski became like a small king in the country, having been granted the right to levy taxes and to conduct his own foreign affairs, maintaining especially close relations with Tsar Peter the Great. He organized partisan warfare against the Swedes who had forced their into Lithuania, and participated at the meeting of Peter the Great and King Augustus II in Birzai (see Northern War). Until his death in 1709, Oginski remained loyal to the tsar.
- OGINSKI, Irenaeus (1808-1863), known for the progressive farming methods on his estates in Samogitia, and for initiating a type of self-government among his peasants, with elected bailiffs, courts, credit and other unions. He abolished serfdom on his estates in 1835, and later was a member of a committee formed to investigate the possibilities of abolishing serfdom in the province of Kaunas. He was also concerned with the education of the serfs. In 1859 he established a school of agriculture in Rietavas. One of the instructors was Laurynas Ivinskis, author of the first Lithuanian calendars. Oginski provided financial support for the publication of the calendars and for the primer written Simanas Daukantas. He gave 300 rubbles for a publishing fund proposed by Mikalojus Akelaitis, and offered to establish a printing press in Rietavas or Varniai. He dedicated much energy and wealth to the development and beautification of the town of Rietavas. The town became the agricultural and cultural center of Samogitia, with agricultural and homemaking exhibitions, orphanage, and hospital.
- OGINSKI, Michael (1849-1902), first and last landlord of Plunge, son of Irenaeus Oginski. He bought the estate of Plunge from Count Zubov, and soon afterwards established a school of music and an orchestra there. One of the musicians was Mikalojus Ciurlionis, who, with the financial assistance of Oginski was able to continue his musical education in Warsaw and Leipzig. There is mention in the memoirs of Lithuanian activists of the funds that Oginski allocated for the publication of the forbidden Lithuanian literature and of his personally smuggling books in a wagon across the Russian-German border. He died in 1902 having left no heirs.
- JURGIS AMBROZIEJUS PABREA
Pabreza, Jurgis Ambroziejus (1771-1849), Franciscan priest and botanist, born in Veciai, county of Kretinga. He studied medicine, botany and liberal arts at the Principal School of Lithuania (formerly the Academy of Vilnius) from 1792-1794. In the fall of 1794 he entered the Samogitian Seminary of Varniai, was ordained priest on Feb. 16, 1796, and subsequently took on pastoral duties in a number of Samogitian parishes. In 1816 he joined the Franciscan- Bernardine friar at Kretinga, taking the name of Ambroziejus (Ambrose), and a year later started teaching Latin and natural science at its school. During this period he wrote an unpublished textbook of Latin and together with his students collected and studied the regional flora. In 1821 he exchanged his teaching duties for preaching, delivering sermonts before huge crowds not only in Kretinga but in numerous other parishes. Since he preserved 250 of his sermons in writing, their reputation for coherence, profundity, pictures queens, and practicality is easily confirmed. Written in the Samogitian sub-dialect of Kretinga, the sermons describe numerous folk customs and beliefs prevailing at that time, thus constituting a valuable source for both linguistic and ethnographic research. A well-like spiritual advisor and father confessor, he also wrote several religious books, but only one, concerning the examination of conscience, was ever published. In addition, he has left a number of humorous poems. Two of them, Esu sau zmogelis (Im a Fellow) and Apie pipkininka (About a Pipe-smoker), were widely known and sung to in Samogitia, while the others remained in manuscript form and have only recently been published. The first to investigate Lithuanian flora, Pabreza collected a large herbarium which was kept at the Kretinga friary. It was discovered in 1913 by the Polish professor B. Hryniewiecki, who transferred a greater part of the collection to the University of Odessa in 1914, where it disappeared during the Russian Revolution. Hryniewiecki published the contents of the herbarium in Tentamina florae Lithuaniae (1933). The remaining 238 pages of the collection are at the University of Kaunas. Pabreza described many new varieties of plant life, copied their folk name, and also created a Lithuanian plant terminology. He compiled a Latin-Lithuanian botanical dictionary (ca 1829), a morphological plant dictionary, and wrote many botanical studies. Part of his manuscript Botanika, a botany text written according to the classification system of Linnaeus, was published in the United states in 1900. During his visits to parishes, he noted that many people suffered needless and died prematurely from various illnesses. Using his medical knowledge, he began researching the medical properties of plants and prescribing them for the different diseases. After more practice and experience he wrote a booklet on how to nurse patients no doctor is available, becoming a true folk doctor. Pabreza died on Oct. 30, 1849, in Kretinga, and was buried in the old cemetery. A stone cross marks his grave and in more recent times a shrine has been constructed. Considered a holy man by the people, his grave has been visited by a great many of the faithful, seeking his intercession. Some of Pabrezas manuscripts are housed in the libraries of the Lithuanian Academy of Arts and Sciences, the University of Vilnius, and of the Lithuanian Society of Botanists. A few of his religious books and sermons are in private collection, while the rest lost during the first Russian occupation (1940) when the Kretinga friar was turned into an army barracks. PAKALNISKIS, Kazimieras (pen name Dede Antanazas; 1866-1933), Roman catholic priest, publicist and writer, born in Gedgaudziai, county of Kretinga, on Feb. 11, 1866. he studied at the theological Seminary of St. Petersburg and Kaunas, and after his ordination in 1889 in Samogitia (Mosedis, Akmene, Zvingiai). From 1916 until his death on July 1, 1933, he was pastor of St.Bartholomews parish in Raudenai. While studding at the Kaunas Seminary, Pakalniskis belonged to a secret group of fellow who received and distributed Lithuanian-language books and newspapers printed abroad, which at the time were forbidden by the Russian administration. In 1899 about 20 clerics decided to publish a newspaper under the name Zemaiciu it Lietuvos Apzvalga (The Samogitian and Lithuanian Review). Pakalniskis wrote its first editorial and became its editor, which meant that he had to write most of the articles himself, then sent them to East Prussia (Lithuania Minor) where the newspaper was being printed. He waged a hard and uncompromising battle against the Russian administration in Lithuania, against its Russification practices and its restrictions on the profession of the Catholic faith. Pakalniskis also wrote stories. His most important work is Obrusiteliai (derived from the Russian word obrusit -to Russify). He describes the lifestyles and activities of Russian officials and teachers in Lithuania, Lithuanian village life and negative personalities. Pakalniskis continued the tradition of didactical fiction established by Motiejus Valancius.
PALIULIONIS, Mecislovas (1834-1908), bishop of Samogitia, born in Smilgiai, county of Panevezys, on May 2, 1834. He studied at the Theological Seminary of Varniai and at the Theological Academy of St. Peterburg, being graduated and ordained in 1860. Appointed professor of dogmatic theology at the Samogitian diocesan seminary of Varniai, he was later transferred to Kaunas and on May 22, 1883 consecrated bishop of Samogitia. Paliulionis, representing conservative attitudes, viewed such deliberate attempts at evoking a specifically. Lithuanian national consciousness with scepticizm. Remaining true to old Polish gentry traditions he used only the Polish language in his dealings with the clergy and the privileged laity, but simultaneously recognized the necessity of resorting to Lithuanian for the purpose of presenting accurate and effective religious instruction to the general (peasant) populace. He urged the lifting of the press ban. On June 11, 1902 he sent the memorandum, prepared by Rev. Aleksandras Dambrauskas, on the question of aboloshing the press ban. When the ban on Lithuanian publications was final lifted (1904), he convinced Rev. Antanas Karosas, rector of the Samogitia seminary, to establish the weekly Nedeldienio Skaitymai (Sunday Reading) and to publish books in Lithuanian. Paliulionis fought against religious oppression as practized by the Russian administration. He forbade Catholic school children attendance at Orthodox services. Concerned with the education of the clergy he extended the program of study at his seminary to a total of 5 year. During his tenure new churches were built and the interior of Kaunas Carthedral was renovated; he commissioned artist Michael E.Andriolli to execute eleven new paintings. On his invitation the well-known musician Juozas Naujalis became cathedral organist and seminary professor. All in all, Paliulionis main concern was his pastoral work. PETKEVICAITE, Gabriele (pen mane Bite; 1861-1943), writer and journalist, born in Puziniskis, county of Panevezys, on March 18, 1861. Having graduated from the Jelgava (Mitau) girls school in Latvija (1878), she assisted her father, worked in a pharmacy, and taught children as a private tutor. In 1893 she founded the Ziburelis (Light) society to support indigent students and individuals active in cultural affairs. She was one of the organizers and chairwoman of the first Congress of Lithuanian Women in 1907; she also co-founded the Lithuanian Womens Association in 1908 and the Womens Association of Lithuania in 1922. Following the death of her father, she joined the editorial staff of the newspaper Lietuvos Zinios (Lithunaian News) at Vilnius in 1909. Prompted by P. Visinskis, she began her career as a writer in 1890 by contributing news items to Varpas (The Bell). Subsequently, she went on to articles, fiction, drama, memoirs, literary history, and novel. Her journalistic impulse owes much to Vincas Kudirkas complaint in Varpas. Her earliest fiction in the form of short sketches and stories, began to appear in the press in 1894. Published separately were Tevas ir sunus (Father and Son, 1900); Nebe pirmas (No longer the First, 1902), and Krislai (Motes, 1905). Social and national themes predominate in her writing. Her ideal was social equality. The harmony that she saw in nature would also prevail in social life. One of her most powerful stories, Dievui atkisus (Offering it to God) and two-part novel Ad Astra. Petkevicaite turned to drama also on the advice of Visinskis, and together with her protege Zemaite began writing plays jointly under the pseudonym Dvi moterys (Two women). These include Velnias spastuose (The Devil in a Trap, 1902), Kaip kas ismano, taip save gano (To each His own Way, 1904); Litvomanai (Fanatics of Lithuanism, 1905); Parduotoji laime (The Sold Happiness, 1905); Dumblyne (The Bog, 1912). While these plays are predominantly as expression of Zemaites talent, Kova (The struggle, 1900) is attributed mainly to Petkevicaite. PUTVINSKIS-PUTVIS, Vladas Gerardas (1873-1929), agriculturist and philosopher, founder of Sauliu Sajunga (National Guard), born in Riga (Latvia) on Sept. 24, 1873. He was descended from an old Lithuanian noble family. Putvinskis-Putvis studied agriculture at the University of Halle in Germany until 1896, later technology of fishery and fish-farming in Poland. During the period of independence he lectured of Fish-farming at the Dotnuva Agricultural Academy. From 1896 Putvis managed his fathers estates of Silo-Pavezupis (county of Siauliai) and Grauzikai (county of Raseiniai), having successfully experimented in agrobiology, daiyring, livestock breeding, and fish-farming. Initially Putvis could not speak Lithuanian and considered himself to be gente lituanus, natione polonus. Under the influence of Povilas Visinskis and with the help of his wife (grandniece of Bishop Motiejus Valancius) , he learned the language and ardently took up the cause of his country. His estates became important centers for secret Lithuanian activities. at the same time Putvis abolished obsolete aristocratic practices on his land, fought against them elsewhere, and attempted to introduce radical social reforms. In 1906 he was arrested and imprisoned by the Russian police and again in 1914, and deported to Russia during World War I. He returned to Lithuania in 1918. In 1919 Putvis founded Lietuvos Sauliu Sajunga, was elected its first president and its first commander in chief, also he founded the principal journal of Sauliu Sajunga, Trimitas (The Trumpet). Putvis was interested in philosophy. He approached it from the point of view of German idealism, being especially fascinated by Hegel (he translated a number of Hegelian terms into Lithuanian). Also he developed an interest in the Bible. he wrote for the Lithuanian press and published several works separately. His selected writings were published in 1933 and 1934, also in 1974 in Chicago.
PUTVIS (Putvinskis), Stasys (1898-1941?), agronomist and statesman, son of Vladas Putvinskis, born in Silo-Pavezupis, county of Siauliai, on Aug. 25, 1898. He served as an officer in the wars for Lithuanian independence, and was decorated with the Order of the Cross of Vytis. He was graduated in agronomy at the University of Halle, Germany, in 1925. From 1925-35 he managed the farms of his estates in Silo-Pavezupis and Bubiai; concerned himself with the social welfare and education of the local farmers and workers; and was active in the cultural affairs of the paramilitary organisation Sauliu Sajunga. Appointed Minister of Agriculture in 1935, he designed a plan for aforestation, creating a fund (1937) for that purpose, and contributed greatly to the establishment of the Veterinary Academy on Kaunas (1936). He resigned his post in 1938 in protest to the Polish ultimatum which demanded that Lithuania resume diplomatic relations with Poland. With the occupation of Lithuania by the Soviet Union (1940), he was arrested and increased in Siauliai prison, and in June of 1941 deported to Russia. He is thought to have died in Gorki prison in the same year.
POSKA, Dionizas (1757-1830), writer, active participant in the Samogitian national movement, born in Maldunai or Brazdziai, county of Raseiniai, on April 30, 1757. He came from a family of petty nobles and maintained life-long residence on his small estate at Brazdziai- Bijotai commuting when necessary to Raseiniai, where he intermittently served as court clerk and notary public. he studied at the College of Kraziai but never graduated, furthering his education on his own by reading and befriending students and scholars from the University of Vilnius. At that time a distinctive Samogitian literary movement began to arise. Poska emerged as the central figure of the movement. He himself undertook to excavate barrow graves and to collect archaeological, numismatic, and ethnographic evidence; created a small museum named Baublys. He maintained an intensive correspondence with professors at the University of Vilnius (Lelewel, Onacewicz, Lobojko), educational officials (Czacki), linguists (Koeppen), translators (Bishop Juozas A.Giedraitis) and others. Poskas principal concerns was to include someone competent to write a comprehensive Lithuanian history. Poska himself collected historical evidence, using his findings and those of other authors for writing polish and Lithuanian tracts, versified, on one or another aspect of the Lithuanian heritage. He published booklet Rozmyslania wiesniaka rolnika (Contemplations of a Peasant Agriculturist, 1829), wrote essays on Samogitian barrow graves, ancient burial customs, pagan religious ceremonies, village domiciles, and other topics. Poska also concerned with the Lithuanian language. One of his most important undertakings in this area was the preparation of a Polish-Latin- Lithuanian Dictionary, whose manuscript remains at the Academy of Science Library in Vilnius. As a model he used Samuel B. Lindes famous Polish dictionary (1807-14), also consulted previously published Lithuanian dictionaries. In addition, he included many original and translated poems, versified aphorisms, epigrams, and satirical sayings. His largest and most well-known work is Muzikas Zemaiciu ir Lietuvos (The Samogitian and Lithuanian Peasant), written between 1815-20. the work is patterned after the poem Chlop Polski (The Polish Peasant) by an unknown author, published in Vilnius at the end of the 18th century. But its content is suffused with specifically Lithuanian colour and experience, articulating the great oppression of the Lithuanian serf and revealing the authors sincere empathy with him. In addition, 16 longer and about 300 short Lithuanian poems by Poska have survived; many other have been lost. There are indications that he had translated Vergils Aeneid, Ovids Amores, Krasickis Modna Zona (The fashionable Wife). Some of his poems were published in Ivinskis calendars (1846-63). He collected poetry, letters, and essays have been published as Rastai (Writings) in Vilnius in 1959.
PSIBILIAUSKIENE, Sofija (pseudonym Lazdynu Peleda, which she shared with her sister Marija Lastauskiene; 1867-1926), writer born on the estate of Paragiai, county of Telsiai, on Sept. 16, 1867. Her father provided her with an early milieu of chronic insecurity and sentimental Polish novels. She began to write for Lithuanian periodicals at the urging of Povilas Visinskis; after moving to Vilnius in 1903, where she found work in a book store, and separating from her husband, she was able to devote more time to literature. Psibiliauskiene died on Nov.15, 1926 in her native Paragiai. Her writings reflected part of her own life: the novella Klaida (Mistake, 1908). The early sketches and stories illustrated moral and social problems in a didactic vein: Naslaite (The Orphan Girl, 1898), Klajunas (The Wanderer, 1902), or Stebuklingoji tosele (The Magic Reed-Pipe, 1907). The life Psibiliauskiene depicts is pessimistic, sad, and cold. Most of the characters she has created are oppressed by misfortune, by mens injustices and evil, and by their own sin and guilt... (Her) world, with rare exceptions, is stuffy, hemmed in, lightness, airless... nature is only a projection in her inner mood (V.Mikolaitis-Putinas). Two extensive editions of her works are: Rastai (Writings), 4 volumes, Tilze 1921-22; and Rastai, 7 volumes, Vilnius, 1954-1955.
- RAMANAUSKAS, Pranciskus (1893-1959), bishop of Telsiai, born in Betygala, county of Raseiniai, on Oct. 6, 1893. After graduating from the Theological Seminary of Kaunas and being ordained priest in 1917, he served as curate of the Raseiniai and Telsiai parishes. Later he studied in Rome where he obtained his doctor of theology degree in 1932. In the same year he was appointed professor at the Theological seminary of Telsiai, teaching courses on dogmatic theology and religious pedagogy. he was in charge of the diocesan synodal and served as examiner and censor of books. In 1940 he became rector of the seminary at Telsiai, and in 1944 he was consecrated auxiliary bishop of Telsiai. After Soviet Russia occupied Lithuania for the second time, he was arrested in 1946 and exiled to Siberia. Allowed to return to Lithuania in 1956 without permission to exercise his episcopal duties, he died on Oct. 15, 1959 in Telsiai. he is the author of several articles on dogmatic theology published in religious journals, and of the book Tikybos pamokos praktikoje (Religious Teaching in Practice, 1934).
- RAZMA, Antanas (1922-), physician, organizer of the Lithuanian Foundation, born in Visvainiai, county of Kretinga, on June 20, 1922. From 1945-52 he studied medicine at the University of Tubingen in Germany. On receiving his emigrated to the United States and settled in Joliet, Illinois. Since 1955 he has been engaged in private practice at Wilmington in the same state. In 1960 he proposed the idea of a Million Dollar Fund for the support of the Lithuanian communitys struggling cultural and educational end eavours. Such a fund would grow from voluntary contributions by private individuals and organizations and in turn distribute its capital gains among worthy community projects. Formally incorporated in the State of Illinois in 1962 as the Lithuanian Foundation, the fund surpassed its initial million dollar goal in 1975. Instrumental in its success, Razma has served as its first chairman of the board (1962-65) and as its president since 1965. He has also raised funds for the publishing activity of the Lithuanian Front in exile, an organization of which he is a key member. Since 1961 he has been repeatedly elected to the council of the Americal Lithunian Community, Inc.
- RHESA, Ludwig (Lith. Liudvikas Reza; 1777-1840), Protestant theologian, literary scholar, and poet, born in the village of Karvaiciai, on the Courish Spit (then under German rule), on Jan. 9, 1777. He studied theology, philosophy, and oriental languages at the University of Konigsberg (1795-99). In 1800 he was ordained minister and appointed chaplain of the military garrison at Konigsberg, holding the latter position until 1816. In the meantime he earned his doctorate in philosophy from the University of Konigsberg, and was invited to teach there.
- In 1818 he acquired a doctorate in theology and became full professor, later in 1828 as chairman of the theology department.
- He died in Konigsberg on Aug. 30, 1840.
- Rhesas theological works were written in Latin: first dissertation (De librorum sacrorum interpretatione morali, e Kantio commendata, 1807), the second one about the source and origin of the first three Gospels. In other works he dealt with the first preachers of the Reformation in Prussia, the Augsburg Confession, and his history of Christianity in Prussia and Lithuania, criticising the Teutonic Order for its apostleship of the sword. His most significant work in the religious field was Biblia, tai esti: Wisas Szventas Rasztas (Konigsberg, 1816, 1824). It was the third and fourth Lithuanian edition and based on ancient Hebrew and Greek texts also on the manuscript of Jonas Bretkunas (1599).
- In the field of Lithuanian language and literature Rhesa wrote a survey of Lithuanian Scriptural translations in the past (Geschichte der litauischen Bibel, 1816) and a critical philological commentary (Philologisch-kritische Anmerkungen zur litauischen Bibel, I-II, 1816-24). Another important contribution of Rhesas to Lithuanian literature lies in the fact that he was the first to publish Donelaitis great narrative poem The Seasons (Lith. Metai), albeit nearly 40 years after the authors death Rhesas edition entitled Das Jahr in vier Gesangen (The year in Four cantos, Konigsberg, 1818) was accompanied be a German translation, the poets biography, and a brief introduction.
- Rhesa, however, is the best known for his collection of Lithuanian folk songs, Dainos oder Litauische Volkslieder, published in Konigsberg in 1825. Therein he offers 85 texts of folk songs collected in Lithuania Minor (East Prussia), 7 melodies, a German translation of the former and an accompanying analytic essay. In the lectures on Lithuanian folk poetry he discussed the songs from the various points of view (ethnographic, mythological, historical, philological).
- Rhesas collection was translated into other languages. it received good reviews from Jacob Grimm (1826) and Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1828,1835).
- Rhesa wrote his poetry in German. He published two collections of poems under the title of Prutena (1809, 1825), which means Prussian things.
- RASTIKIS, Stasys (1896-), Lithuanian statesman and general, born in Kursenai, county of Siauliai, on Sept. 3, 1896. During World War I he served as a non-comisioned officer on the Lithuanian, Galician and Romanian fronts. In 1917 he graduated from the Military Academy of Tiflis (Tbilisi) and at the end of the war found himself on the Caucasian front. Returning to Lithuania, he participated in its Wars of Independence against the Red army and the Poles. Wounded and taken prisoner by the Russians in 1919, he spent time at Tula concentration camp and Moscow prison. In 1921 he was released during a Soviet-Lithuanian prisoner exchange. Thereupon he served in the infantry and on the General Staff. In 1929 he graduated from the Law School of the University of Kaunas and in 1932 from the General Staff Academy of Berlin. From 1933-34 he succesively served as regimental commander, head of divisional staff, and as General Staff commander. In 1935 he was appointed general of the army and served in his capacity until January, 1940. In 1938 he also served as Minister of Defence.
- While serving as General of the Army, he reorganized the army, provided with modern weapons, prepared mobilization plans in case of war, and sought to prevent the military from becoming an arm of the ruling Nationalist party.
- After the presentation of the final Soviet to Lithuania (June 14, 1940), he was appointed Prime Minister in a desperate move to forestall Soviet objectives; but on the next day Soviet troops entered Lithuania and imposed an occupation regime directed from Moscow. Barely escaping arrest by Soviet secret police, Rastikis fled to Berlin.
- At the outbreak of the Russo-German war (June 22, 1941), Lithuanian anti-Soviet insurgents proclaimed a Provisional Government with Rastikis as Minister of Defence. On Aug. 6, 1941, German occupation authorities suppressed it but offered Rastikis the post of general counsellor of the German civilian administration. he refused and thereupon found lowly employment at the Kaunas War Museum. In 1944 he again retreated to the West in anticipation of the second Soviet invasion. Emigrating to the United States in 1949, he was instructor in Russian at Syracuse University from 1951-52 and at the institute of foreign languages (Monterey, California) from 1955-73. Rastikis has written many articles on political and military matters for the Lithuanian and American press. Between 1956 and 1973 he published three large volumes of memoirs entitled Kovose del Lietuvos (Struggling for Lithuania).
- SALYS, Antanas (1902-1972), linguist, born in Rekete, county of Kretinga, on July 21, 1902. He studied Lithuanian and comparative Indo-European philology at the University of Kaunas (1923-25); Lithuanian and other Baltic languages, Slavic languages, and comparative linguistics at the University of Leipzig (1925-29); and experimental phonetics at the University of Hamburg (1929). He obtained his doctorate in 1929 from Leipzig with a dissertation on Samogitian (Zemaitish) dialects, "Die zemaitischen Mundarten," (Tauta ir Zodis, VI, Kaunas, 1930). In 1930 he began his teaching career at the University of Kaunas, transferring to that in Vilnius in 1940. His courses included introduction to linguistics, introduction to Baltic linguistics, comparative Indo-European grammar, general phonetics, Lithuanian phonetics, Lithuanian dialectology, and Latvian language. At Kaunas he organized a phonetics laboratory. In addition, he served as director of the Lithuanian language section of the Institute of Lithuanian Studies (1939-40) and of the Lithuanian Language Institute of the Lithuanian Academy of Science (1941-44). Withdrawing from Lithuania in 1944, he taught at Greifswald and Tubingen Universities (1944-46). Finally, from 1947-72 he was assistant, associate, and (since 1956) full professor at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, teaching Russian and Polish, Old Church Slavic, comparative grammar of Slavic languages, Baltic languages, and early Lithuanian literature; his lectures were considered to be well prepared and accessible. He died in Philadelphia on July 11, 1972.
- Salys' principal field of specialization was Lithuanian dialectology. Besides the doctoral dissertation, his major work in this area is Lietuviu kalbos tarmes (Lithuanian Dialects, Kaunas, 1935; 2nd edition, Tubingen 1946). This is a book, offering a comprehensive characterization of Lithuanian dialects with a map showing the distribution of these dialects. Some observations on the origin of Lithuanian dialects are presented in his article in Archive Philology (vol. 4, Kaunas, 1933). The results of his synchronic and diachronic investigations of Lithuanian dialects are summarized in Lietuviu Enciklopedija (Lithuanian Encyclopaedia, vol. 15, Boston, 1968).
- Salys' significant contribution to Lithuanian lexicography in his work on the Worterbush der litauischen Schriftsprache (Heidelberg, 1932-68). Three Swiss linguists, Max Niedermann, Alfred Senn, and Franz Brender edited this five-volume dictionary in 1926. After Brender's death in 1938, Salys joined the other two editors. Senn and Salys have finished the dictionary. It remains the largest dictionary of Lithuanian words with translations into a foreign language (German). Salys had also been gathering material for his own historical dictionary of Lithuanian, of the purpose of which he made a research trip to Lithuania in 1969.
- Salys already dealt with questions of onomastic in his dissertation, discussing ancient Lithuanian (Baltic) personal and place names to determine the area and boundaries of Samogitian dialects. Continuing his work in the animistic field, he served on the Surname Commission of the Internal Affairs Ministry and as editor of its Surname Dictionary; and edited a dictionary of Vilnius Territory place names. The manuscripts of both dictionaries remained unpublished. Artier World War II he published two books: Lietuvos zemelapio vardynas (Gazetteer to the Map of Lithuania), published in Boston in 1956 together with the map designed by Juozas Andrius; and an animistic appendix (Anhang, 1968) to the above mentioned Worterbuch der litauischen Schriftsprache, comprising about 5,500 names. He provided many animistic entries for Lietuviu Enciklopedija (1953-69). He served, as the latter's linguistics editor and wrote a considerable number of articles, including those ancient Baltic tribes.
- Concerned with practical problems of standard Lithuanian, he contributed heavily to Gimtoji Kalba (Native Language, 1933-41), a magazine he helped establish and on whose editorial staff he served continuously. He served in an advisory capacity on the State Council's Commision on Terminology, and delivered guest lectures to various educator groups. His contribution to the development and normalization of standard Lithuanian is quite considerable.
- SARBIEVIUS (Sarbiewski), Matthew Casimir (1595-1640) Jesuit priests theologian and poet, born in Sarbiew, Masuria, on Feb. 24, 1595. He studied theology, rhetoric and philosophy at various universities, graduating from Romes Jesuit Collegium Romanum in 1624. Ordained in 1623 he returned to Lithuania in 1625, where he taught rhetoric, and was professor of philosophy at the Academy of Vilnius during 1628-31. At the invitation of King Ladislav Versa, Sarbievius went to Warsaw in 1635 to serve as court preacher and theologian. He died in Warsaw on April 2, 1640. One of the eminent Latin-language poets of his time, Sarbievius was renowned for his odes and epigrams and earned the title Horatius Sarmaticus from his contemporaries. His verse, both subtly lyrical and flamboyantly baroque, is informed with Christian and patriotic sentiments, suffused with the love of nature. He was translated into English (1646), Polish (1682), Lithuanian, and many other languages. Lithuanian themes about in his poetry, especially in Silviludia (Forest Games), published only in 1769, where he celebrates the beauties of the Lithuanian landscape. He also wrote a poetic theory.
- SATRIJOS RAGANA-PECKAUSKAITE, Marriage (pen name Satrijos Ragana; 1878-1930), educator and writer, born in Medingenai, county of Telsiai, on Feb. 24, 1878. Even though her parents were of the nobility who had adopted the way of Polish culture, they permitted her to make friends with peasants children and to speak Lithuanian with them. In the bosom of her enlightened family she matured into a woman of democratic, humanist and religious disposition. A friendship with Pivots Visinskis (q. v) inclined her toward committed participation in the newly arising, distinctively Lithuanian literary and cultural movement. Visinskis translated her first works (written in Polish) and from 1895 on had them published in Varpas (The Bell) and Ukinikas (The Farmer), liberal Lithuanian periodicals. But Peckauskaite could not accept Visinskis' liberalism and religious indiferentism, although she had come to share his patriotic enthusiasm and nationalist orientation. She began to publish her writings in Tevynes Sargas (Guardian of the Homeland) and other Catholic newspapers after making the acquaintance of Rev. Juozas Tumas (q. v). In 1905 she received a scholarship (through Visinskis) from the Ziburelis (The Little Light) society and travelled to Switzerland, where she studied pedagogic at the Universities of Zurich and Fribourg. While pursuing her studies she met Friedich Foerster, whose pedagogical ideas were to have a lasting influence on her subsequent literary and teaching endeavours. She translated a number of his works into Lithuanian. From 1909-14 she filled a teaching and supervisory position at the Marijampole girls' secondary school. After that she spent the rest of her life in Zidikai, northeastern Lithuania, engaged in writing and charity work despite the fact that others were supporting her her. Peckauskaite died in Zidikai on July 24, 1930.
- A six-volume edition of her works appeared in 1928. Published separately were her most important pedagogical volume Motion aukletoja (The Mother as Pedagogue, 1936) and Lithuanian translations of Foerster's Jogendlehre (2nd ed. 1926), Sexualethik und Sexualpadagogik (1923), Schule und Character (1928), Christs und das menschliche Leben (1931), Lebenskunde (1934), and Hendryk Sienkiewicz's W pustyni i w puszozy (1921, 2nd ed. 1927-1929).
- Her prose, consisting or short stories and novellas, depicts developments characteristic of her time: the shift of the social center of gravity from estate to village, from a Lithuania of upper classes to a Lithuania of peasants, and from a Polish to a Lithuanian cultural orientation. The estate and nobility are shown in three embodiments. The first still clings to the old visions of a joint aristocratic Polish – Lithuanian commonwealth and is incapable of accepting or understanding the new way of life. The second has no idealistic aspirations at all, being concerned only with good times, leisure, partying, hunting, and opportunistic appeasement of the government. The third group embraces the new way of life, joining in with practical work in education, social weaver, and agricultural improvement (Viktute, 1903). In portraying the common people, she prefers to focus on youth, its quest for learning, humanism and altruism; some of her most appealing characterizations are of childrens (Vincas Stonis, 1906).
- Except for a stronger autobiographical element, thematically her literary work differs very little from that of other women writers of this period (Bite, Zemaite, Lazdynu Peleda). The novella Viktute recalls her own path toward national consciousness; Sename dvare (On the Old Estate) echoes life in her parents' home. More distinctive of her writings is her pedagogical tone, issuing from a belief in man's obligatory perfectibility in accordance with Christian ideals. A person's movement toward perfection is made easier in the appropriate surroundings, such as can be provided by the family in which the mother's role is paramount. Sename dvare, her longest and most important work, depict just a family. By contrast, in her best short story Irkos tragedija (Irka's Tragedy), a small child sustains her first moral defeat precisely because she is failed miserably by her own family. Another distinguishing quality of her works is their emotionality. Freshly introduced characters or situations are frequently accompanied by marked but not jarring changes in mood and inner attitude, ranging from idyll over bright humour and irony and elegy to mystical ecstasy. Sename dvare is an espacially outstanding example of this type of romanticism in Lithuanian literature.
- SAULYS, Jurgis (1879-1948), economist, publicist, and diplomat, signatory if Lithuanian declaration of Independence, born in Balsenai, county of Taurage, on April 23, 1897. As a student at the Palanga secondary school and Kaunas Theological Seminary, he disseminated Lithuanian underground publications; caught by the authorities, he was dismissed from the latter. Having moved to Vilnius in 1900, he joined the Lithuanian cultural movement, helping to organize language courses and theatrical productions and becoming known as one of the Twelve Apostles of Vilnius, who defended Lithuanian interest before Russian public and Polish ecclesiastical officials. In 1902 he participated in a secret meeting resulting in the establishment of the Democratic Party (q.v.). Subsequently he moved to Tilze, East Prussia, to edit Varpas (The bell), the secret organ of the Lithuanian liberals. He continued in this task even after enrolling at the University of Bern (Switzerland) to study economics. Receiving a doctorate in 1912, he returned to Vilnius, joined the Lithuania Learned Society, and for some time edited the daily Lietuvos Zinios (News of Lithuania). After Germany occupied Lithuania at the beginning of World War I, he became engaged in relief work as well as in the preparation of the Vilnius National Conference of 1917, which elected the Council of Lithuania (q.v.). Saulys was chosen as the Councils secretary-general and together with its 19 other members signed the declaration re-establishing the independent state of Lithuania (Feb.16, 1918). He immediately joined the young republics diplomatic service. From 1918 -23 and from 1927-46 he served various terms as envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary to Germany, Switzerland, the Vatican, and Poland. After the collapse of the last mentioned country in 1939, he moved to Switzerland, where he was minister until the Swiss government closed the Lithuanian legation in 1946. He died two years later, on Sept. 18, 1948, in Lugano, where his wife, the Italian opera star Mafalda Salvatini, owned property.
- Saulys was bibliophile who collected many publications, manuscripts, letters, and documents having to do with Lithuanias past and its prominent figures. In 1938 he denoted 644 old printed items to the University of Kaunas; the University of Pencylvania acquired the rest of his library and archive in 1952.
- SAULYS, Kazimieras (1872-1964), Roman Catholic priest, canoeist, signer of the Lithuanian Declaration in Independence, born at Stempliai, county of Taurage, on Jan. 16, 1872. He graduated from the Theological Seminary of Kaunas (1895) and from the Theological Academy of St. Petersburg, where he received his masters degree in theology and canon law (1899). In the same year he was ordained to the priesthood and appointed curate of SS. Peter and Paul parish at Panevezys, becoming the citys secondary school chaplain in 1901. Five years later he was transferred to the Kaunas Theological seminary as professor of canon law and moral theology. From 1922-40 and from 1941-1944 he taught the same subjects at the faculty of theology and philosophy of the University of Kaunas. He published a series of his lectures under the title Kanoniskojo proceso teise (The Jurisdisprudence of canonic Proceedings, 1927). At the Kaunas Theological Seminary he had also taught social science, giving rise to the textbook Sociologija (Sociology, 1920).
- Saulys held positions in the church administration. From 1911 he served as secretary to the bishop of Samogitia. In 1926-1944 he was a vicar general of the Kaunas archdiocese. He was also actively involved in the work of charitable, educational, and political organizations. He participated in the Great Assembly of Vilnius (1905), the Vilnius National Conference of 1917, and was a member of the Council of Lithuania (q.v.), which proclaimed the Declaration of Independence on Feb. 16, 1918. He also belonged to the Christian Democratic Partys central committee. After 1922 he became more involved in church administration and began to limit his direct participation in politics. In 1944 he withdrew from Lithuania, then being by the Soviet Union to Logan, Switzerland, where he died on May 9, 1964.
- SIMKUS, Jonas (1873-1944), chemist, educator, and statesman born in Duseikiai, county of Telsiai, on April 25, 1873. He held masters degree in chemistry (1903) and in pharmacy (1906) from Moscow University. From 1904-05 and from 1906-15 he taught at the Universities of Kazan and of Moscow, respectively. In 1918 he returned to Lihuania and was appointed minister of commerce and industry (1918-19) and later of defence (1921-22). After the formation of the University of Kaunas (1922), he was appointed professor as well as the first rector, which position he held for a year and a half. He taught organic chemistry technology and special courses for pharmacists, took part in international scholarly conventions, and co-founded or belonged to a number of Lithuanian scientific, economic, and professional societies. From 1926-40 he served as honorary consul of Norway in Lithuania. He left behind numerous articles in specialized journals as well as the book Chemine technologija (Chemical Technology, 1923).
- SIMUTIS, Anicetas (1909-), economist, diplomat, born in Tirksliai, county of Mazeikiai, on Feb. 11, 1909. From 1931-1935 he studied law and economics at the University of Kaunas. There after he continued his studies at Columbia University in New York, receiving his M.A. in 1940. The Columbia University Press published his masters thesis in 1942 under the title of The Economic Reconstruction of Lithuania after 1918. In 1931 he joined the service of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and in 1936 was appointed secretary of the Consulate General of Lithuania in new York, subsequently advancing to the positions of vice consul, conceal and to that of conceal general in 1967, which he occupied to this day. Before Lithuanias occupation by the Soviet Union he was a frequent contribution to Tautos Ukis (National Economy), Lietuvos Aidas (Echo of Lithunia), and other periodicals. Since then he has also asserted himself in American-Lithuanian publications. His extensive research on Lithuania communities throughout the world led to the publication of Pasaulio Lietuviu Zinynas (Lithuanian World Dictionary, 1953), describing such communities and listing the names and addresses of their parishes, association, and prominent persons. A completely revised and enlarged version was published in both English and Lithuanian in 1958. Simutis has visited most of the Lithuanian communities in North America as organizer and lecturer; in 1956-57 he likewise toured those in Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay, and Venezuela.
- SLIUPAS, Vytautas (1930-), construction engineer, born in Palanga on Oct. 24, 1930. His father, Jonas Sliupas (q.v.), was mayor of his seaside resort. Arriving in the United States after World War II, he studied at Ohio Wesley University and the Illinois Institute of Technology, graduating from the latter in 1953. The next year he received his masters degree from the University of Wisconsin, where he stayed on to teach. In 1958-60 he was sent to Liberia to explore possibilities of electrification. Subsequently he worked for the Stanley Engineering Co. (Muscatine, Iowa) as head of the hydraulics department. At present he is with the International Engineering Co., in charge of its African, European, and Middle Eastern department. He spent six years in East Pakistan and Thailand representing his company. Since his student days he has been active in the Lithuanian Scouts Association, occupying a variety of central positions. A member of the Lithuanian Engineers and Architects Association, he has written a number of articles on professional topics for its journal Technikos zodis (Engineering Word).
- SMIGLEVICIUS, Jonas (1870-1942), economist, signer of Lithuanian Declaration of Independence, born in Soniai, county of Telsiai, on Feb. 12, 1870. He studied economics at the Universities of Konigsberg and Berlin, graduating from the latter in 1899. After three years of service with the Russian Ministry of Agriculture in St. Petersburg, he works in private industry in Warsaw. Later he lived in Vilnius, where he was co-founder and director of the Vilija Company, an agricultural machinery factory. One of the organizers of the Vilnius Conference in 1917, he was elected to the Council of Lithuania (q.v.), which proclaimed the Declaration of Independence on Feb. 16, 1918. Subsequently he was responsible for the establishment of several industrial concerns and was active in a number of economic organisations. He transformed his estates at Uzventis into a model farm with a distillery, brickyard, mill, and sawmill. He died in Kaunas on Sept. 27, 1942.
- STAUGAITIS, Justinas (1866-1943), first Roman Catholic bishop of Telsiai, signer of the Lithuanian Declaration of Independence, born in Tupikai, county of Siauliai, on Nov. 14, 1866. On finishing Seinai Theological Seminary is being ordained in 1890, he served in Polish and southern Lithuanian parishes. As curate in Marijampole (1905-06) he founded the educational society Ziburys (The Light, q.v.), which soon spread its activities throughout southern Lithuania. Through his efforts Marijampole received a girls junior high school, two grammar schools, and an old age home and orphanage. From 1909-12 he edited and managed the journal Vadovas (The Guide) at Seinai before moving to Aukstoji Panemine, where he served as pastor until 1926. At the Lithuanian Conference of Vilnius (Sept. 17-22, 1917), he was elected to the Council of Lithuania (q.v.), whose 20 members signed the declaration of Independence on February 16, 1918. A member of the Christian Democratic Party, he was elected to the Constituent Assembly (1920) and to the succeeding three parliaments, serving as speaker or deputy speaker.
- In 1926 Staugaitis was consecrated bishop of Telsiai, a new diocese created out of parishes in noth western Lithuania that had belonged to the former Samogitian diocese. He organised the diocesan chapter; established a theological seminary; and assisted the Catholic weekly Zemaiciu Prietelis (Friend of the Samogitia). He died in Telsiai on July8, 1943.
- As a student he articles on religious, social, and educational topics to vadovas as well as to other periodicals. He published books include Baznycios istorija (Church History, 1911); Darbininku klausimas (The question of labour, 1912); Lietuvos valstybes tarybos darbai (Accomplishment of the Lithuanian State Council, 1919); Valstybe ir baznycia (Church and State, 1920); Tikyba ir mokslas (Religion and Science, 1928). Under the pen name of Gintautas he wrote the three-part novel Tiesiu keliu (Down the Straight Road, 1934-35), which, in depicting the life of loyal priest, attempts to provide a morally correct antithesis to Vincas Mykolaitis-Putinas (q.v.) scandalous Altoriu seselyje (In the Shadow of the Altars).
- STRYJKOWSKI, Matthew (1547-after 1586). He is author of the first printed history of Lithuania. He was descanted from Masuria (Mazovia) and was educated at the University of Cracow. Serving in the Lithuanian army from 1565 on (with an interval of two years 1567-1569, spent in Cracow), he collected documentary material, travelled from town to town and castle to castle. And took part in the War of Livonia. While in the army he met the Italian officer and chronicler Alexander Gucasion to accuse of plagiarizing his own major work, the Cronicle.
- The Polish work, entitled Kronika Polska, Litewska, Zmudzka i wszystkiej Rusi (Chronicle of Poland, Lithuania, Samogitia, and all the lands of Russ, Königsberg, 1582) put events in Lithuania at the centre and then tied those in neigh bouring countries around the former. In 1578 Bishop Merkelis Giedraitis of Samogitia, an active supported of cultural activities in Lithuania, had appointed Stryjkowski, a member of the laity, to his diocesan chapter, thereby helping to support the writing of the Chronicle.
- Stryjkowskis Chronicle begins with a versified biography of the author and a dedication to King Stephen Bathory (1576-1586). Throughout the from the distant past to his own time, Stryjkowski includes a number of dedications to members of the aristocracy, particularly the Giedraitis family. He shows himself to be an adherent of the myth that the Lithuanians were descended from the Romans, even to the point of creating genealogies for a number of prominent families. In general, he did not consistently separate legend from fact, although he was more accurate in recounting events nearer to his own time. Still, he did not entirely refrain from making gratuitous additions to the testimony of his available sources and from occasionally inventing historical dates to give his chronology a more concrete appearance. On the whole, however, he based himself on Lithuanian, Russian, Ukrainian, and Polish chronicles and other records, consciously attempting to gather and to compare as many of these as possible. Out of Lithuanian chronicles he copied entire excerpts or at least provided an abbreviated account of them. Some of his sources have since to assess the reliability of a number of his claims. But the information he gives on his own times must certainly be deemed valuable, as many of his remarks concerning towns, castles, customs, traces of the ancient folk faith, and holidays are derived from personal observation. While living in Samogitia he had an opportunity to become acquainted with the local scene and, perhaps, even to learn Lithuanian: there are a number of Lithuanian expressions and bits of dialogue in his work. Indeed, Stryjkowski largely assumed the political attitudes of his Lithuanian hosts; he defended their determination to retain the independence of Lithuania within the context of its union with Poland; heaped praise on Lithuanian rulers and their deeds; rejected many tendentious explanations that he found in Polish chronicles; and sought instead to substitute a properly Lithuanian interpretation of certain events.
- Strykowskis Chronicle remained the principal source of information about Lithuanias past until the beginning of the 19th century. Thus, Alber Kojalavicius, a Jesuit historian, made heavy use of the work in writing his own two-volume history of Lithuania (Historiae Litvanae, 1560 and 1669), of which Alber Ludwig von Schölzer made a German summary, 1789. The Chronicle itself was reprinted in its entirety in 1766 and 1846 and continued to be of use to Theodore Narbut for his Dzieje narodu Litewskiego (I-IX, 1836-1841) and to Simonas Daukantas for his Istorija zemaitiska (A Samogitian History, 1835).
- Strykowskis partiality to Lithuania has brought him sharp criticism from Polish authors. They have generally held his work to be worthless, a judge ment which goes beyond what can in fairness be held against him and other chroniclers writing under the influence of medieval and early Renaissance ideologies. Recently Polish writers have begun to pay more attention to Stryjkowski, but only as an exponent of polish Renaissance literature, not as a historian of Lithuania.
- STULGINSKIS, Aleksandras (1885-1969), second President of the Republic of Lithuania, serving from 1920-26, born in Kutaliai, county of Taurage, on Feb. 26, 1885, as the sixteenth child of a farm worker family. He studied theology at the Samogitian diocesan seminary in Kaunas and at the University of Innnsbruck (Austria), but did not take the priestly vows. In 1913 he completed the Institute of Agriculture in Halle (Germany), and on returning to Lithuania worked as agronomist in Alytus. From 1915-18 he lived in Vilnius and took an active part in the cultural and political affairs of the city's Lithuanians. He organized educational courses for elementary school teacher, taught natural science at the Lithuanian high school, and published the newspaper Ukininkas (The Farmer).
- Ideologically, he identified himself with the Cristian Democratic movement, having been one of the founders of the party and its chairman in 1917. In the same year he attended the Lithuania Conference of Vilnius, was elected to the Council of Lithuania (q.v.), and signed the Declaration of the Independence (Feb. 16, 1918).
- He directed the fictional Lietuvos Ukininku Sajunga (Farmers' Union; q. v) within the Cristian Democratic movement.
- In 1920 he was elected to the Constituent Assembly, becoming its speaker. Although the Provincial Constitution of 1920 had provided for the election of the country's President by the Constituent Assembly, the latter chose not to exercise this right. Instead the duties of President were carries out by Stulginskis qua speaker, who took them over in May 1920, from acting President Antanas Smetonas (g. v.). Later, in accordance with the Constitution of 1922, Stulginskis was elected President by the first parliament in 1922 and relocated by the second parliament in1923. He served until 1926, when the third parliament replaced him with Kazys Grinius (q. v). In parliament and as President he depended on the parliamentary bloc formed by Christian Democrats, the Earmer's Union and the Labour federation.
- Stulginskis was elected to the third parliament (1926), even though the Christian Democratic bloc lost its majority. After the coup of Dec. 17, 1926, he was chosen as speaker and served until the new President Antanas Smetona dissolved parliament on April 12, 1927. Stulginskis withdrew to his estate at Jokubavas, county or Kretinga, and carried on as a farmer.
- In 1938 he participated in the World Lithuanian Congress at Kaunas.
- When Soviet Russia occupied Lithuania in 1940, he remained in the country. On June 14, 1941, he and his wife were arrested and deported to Siberia. There they were separated. Stulginskis was exiled to the Krasnojarsk region in eastern Siberia and assigned to work at lumber processing in a camp particularly notorious for its cruel conditions. Subsequently he was moved to the other camps. In 1952 he was sentenced to 25 years, but was released in 1954, a year after Stalin's death. He was allowed to join his wife in the Komi S.S.R. (northern Russia), where he worked as an agronomist in a kolkhoz and she as a lumber-year guard. In 1956 he returned to Lithuania. After being employed for several years as a gardener, he died in Vytenai, a suburb of Kaunas, on Sept. 22, 1969; his wife Ona, nee Matutyte (b. 1894), died on July 16, 1962. Both lies buried in the Petrasiunai, Aldona Juozeviciene, evaded deportation, graduated in medicine from the University of Kaunas, and retreated to the West before the second Soviet invasion (1944).
- SUTEMA, Liune (pen name of Zinaida Nagyte-Katiliskiene; 1927-), poet, born in Mazeikiai, northwestern Lithuania, on July 5, 1927. She studied literature at Innsbruck (Austria) and Freiburg (Germany) before immigrating to the United State. She began writing in 1942, publishing her first collection of poems, Tebunie tartum pasakoj (Let It Be As in A Fairy Tale), in 1955. Her art is structured into a world of symbols. Liune Sutema takes a task of allowing the world she lives in, here and now, to grow into the very tissue of her soul, thus enabling her to acquire a texture of reality in which the most precious essence of her inheritance can survive. This is especially evident in her second book, Nebera nieko svetimo (Nothing Is Any Longer Alien, 1962), in which things surrounding the poet in the new land begin to signify values and experiences commensurate those evoked by things remembered.
- Developing a universe of characteristic symbols is met in her next collection, Bevarde salis (A Nameles land, 1966). Here she delineates a dimension where no one may enter save those whose own integrity provides then with a key to read the secret signs. Among the dominant devises that shape this universe one finds cyclical construction, returning again and again to the point of emotion until it is cleansed of all illusions, as well as a kind of reverse imagery which separates emotional associations destructive of integrity from self-discovery in solitude. Because of this, her poems, despite their reticence and dry texture, become essentially romantic. The readers senses are invited to attune themselves to a certain melodious, a lyrical softness of outline, and a tender helplessness of the soul clothed in severe images of renunciation. In her most recent book, Badmetis (Time of Famine, 1972), which earned her the Vincas Kreve literary prize (1974), this renunciation reaches its most intense statement. We are confronted with images of desiccation, images of fire, destroying all the previously cherished symbols of value in order to preserve the one inner fortress, naked, unyielding human integrity.
- In the general frame of emitter literature, Sutema belongs to the group of outspoken, troubled existential writers, which includes Algimantas Mackus and the older Antanas Skema, and which Mackus once called the generation of ornamented speech.
TAUTAVICIUS, Adolfas (1925-), archaeologist, born in Judrenai, county of Telsiai, on Sept. 9, 1925. He graduated from the University of Vilnius in 1950 and received his candidates (masters) degree in 1954. Associated with the Institute of History of the Lithuanian Academy of Sciences since 1947, he was appointed head of the archaeology and ethnography section in 1962; from 1951-60 he lectured at the University of Vilnius. He is primarily interested in the prehistory (4th-2th centuries) of Eastern Lithuania, and has conducted archaeological excavations in the districts of Eisiskes, Salcininkai, Trakai, Kaisiadorys, Moletai, Anyksciai and Utena, about which he has published articles in The Works of the Lithuanian Academy of Science (A Series), in the Institute of History publication Is lietuviu kulturos istorijos (From the History of Lithuanian Cultre), and elsewhere. He has also investigated the ethnic traits of the Baltic tribes, the early settlements of Lithuanians and Yotvingians, early Lithuanian numismatics (silver bars, 14-15th century coins), medieval castles in Vilnius, Trakai, Klaipeda, and Veliuona. The results of his excavations of the Lower Castle area in Vilnius, conducted during 1955-64, were published in the above mentioned publications and in Lietuvos pilys (Castles of Lithuania, 1971); in the work appeared his articles on the Peninsula castle of Trakai and the castle of Klaipeda. Separately he published Vilniaus pilies kokliai XVI-XVII a. (The 16th-17th Century Tiles of Vilnius Castle, 1969). He is co-author of Lietuvos archeologijos bruozai (Outlines of Archaeology of Lithuania, 1961); Lietuvos archeologiniai paminklai, Lietuvos pajurio I-VIII a. kapinynai (Lithuania Archaeological Monuments, Cemeteries from the 1st-8th Century Along Lithuanias Coast, 1968); Lietuvos gyventoju prekybiniai rysiai I-XIII a. (Trade Relations of Lithuanias Inhabitants in the 1st-13th Centuries, 1972). He was editor of the archaeology section of Archeologiniai ir Etnografiniai tyrinejimai Lietuvoje (Archaeological and Ethnographic Research in Lithuania, 1948-73), and of the three-volume Mazoji Lietuviskoji Tarybine Enciklopedija (Small Lithuanian Soviet Encyclopedia, 1966-71).
- UGENSKIS, Andrius (1816-1870), philologist, lexicographer, born in Taruciai, county of Siaulai, on April 27, 1816. After attending the secondary school in Kraziai in Samogitia he enrolled at the University of Kazan in southern Russia, graduating with a masters degree in Greek literature. First a secondary school classics teacher, from 1861 he was professor of Greek and Latin at his alma mater. He was engaged in the preparation of a dictionary of the Lithuanian language, for which he had collected around 100,000 words. A number of letters to Bishop Motiejus Valancius and writer Laurynas Ivinskis express his high valuation of the native tongue as well as he oppositions to the Polonization of Lithuania. Several times he attempted to secure a teaching position in Lithuania, especially Vilnius, but each time he was turned down by the Russia administrators. His publications include a paper on features of Lithuanian speech, entitled O svoistvakh litovskogo iazyka (Zhurmal Ministerstva Narodnago Prosveshcheniia, 1869).
- URBONAS, Leonas (1925-) painter. He was born in Padustelis, county of Zarasai, on April 19, 1925. After studding at the Stuttgart Academy of Art in Germany (1946-47) he immigrated to Australia in 1948 but returned to Europe in 1951 to study in Switzerland, Germany and England. Since 1953 he has been residing in Sidney. He is member of Contemporary Art Society. He first one-man shows were held at Sidney and Melbourne in 1964. Since than he has exhibited in other Australian cities and in the United States as well. Having rejected the style of academic painting, he now favours that to abstract expressionism.
- UVAINIS, Leonas (1753-1828), amateur philologist, one of the group of Samogitian noblemen displaying an early interest in their countrys language and history and thereby heralding the subsequent national enlightenment period of the late 19th century. Commanding a greater or lesser knowledge of a whole array of languages (Russian, Polish, French, German, Spanish, Greek, Latin, and Hebrew), he applied himself to the study of Lithuanian. In the course of it he prepared both an etymological dictionary and a treatise of Lithuanian numismatics. Neither manuscript has survived. His scholarly interest was well known to the University of Vilnius. Prof. Ivanov Loboyko recommended him to the famous Russian patron of science, Count N. P. Rumiantsev, as a person able to provide a comparison between Lithuanian and Finnic if such a thing were needed for a contemplated Finnic dictionary. University librarian Casmir Kantrimas (q.v.) in 1822 urged the hiring of Uvainis as instructor in the planned department of Lithuanian (which, however, was never established). None of Uvainis Lithuanian writings have survived.
- VAITKUS, Mykolas (1883-1973), Roman Catholic priest, writer, and poet, born in Gargzdai, western Lithuania, on Oct. 27, 1883. After graduating from the seminary at Kaunas in 1906, he studied theology at the Theological Academy in St. Petersburg, Russia (1906-08) and at the University of Innsbruck, Austria, (1908-09). After his ordination as priest he discharged various pastoral duties in Tulsa. In the fall of 1913 he was transferred to Faunas to edit Baznytine Apzvalga (The Church Review), biweekly journal for priests for priests. He spent World War I at Smolensk, Russia. Returning to Lithuania in 1918, he began to work for the Book Publishing Society of St. Casimir. In this capacity from 1919-25 he edited Ganytojas (The Pastor), a monthly journal for priests, and Zvaigzde (The Star), a popular religious journal. Elected secretary of the Society in 1924, he served as editor of nearly all the books published by the Society.
- Durinf the Russian and German occupations he was professor at the Theological Seminary in Kaunas. In Germany from 1945-51, he served as priest within the jurisdiction of the bishop of Regensburg. He immigrated to the United States in 1951 and became chaplain to the Retreat House at Peace Dale, Rhode Island, where he died on May 20, 1973.
- Vaitkus first revealed his talent in lyric poetry. He was an egotist poet, who drew the subjects of his inspiration from his personal life and its relations with the reality of religion and nature. Among his eight collections of his lyric poetry the most characteristic are Nusvitusi dulke (shining Dust, 1933) and Auksinis ruduo (Golden Autumn, 1955). In the genre of drama two symbolic works of fantasy deserve mention; they are Zvaigzdes dukte (The Daughter of the Star, 1924) and Zaibas ir mergaite (The Lightning and the Girl, 1936). In works of belletristic prose, such as Austant (At Dawn, 1939) and Rytmecio zygiai (The Deeds of Morning, 1944), the author portrayed Lithuanian life together with recollections of his own youth. His best work of belletristic prose in Tvanas (The Flood, 1927; second edition 1951), a novel on a biblical theme.
- Literary and historical values attaches to his memoirs, which were published in ten volumes in London from 1960-69: Keturi ganytojai (Four Pastors, 1960), Mistiniame sode (In the Mystic Orchard, 1957), Siaures zvaigzde (The Northern Star, 1965), Nepriklausomybes sauleje (In the Sunshine of Independence, 1968-69; three volumes). The memoirs include descriptions of the activity of some distinguished bishops, the life of the Seminary of Kaunas: Lithuanian national revival and the secret society of seminarians, the role of Lithuanian professors in St. Petersburg Theological Academy, about personalities in the cultural field and government during the period of Lithuanian Independence. These volumes are important as documentary sources.
- VALANCIUS, Motiejus
- Bishop of Samogitia
- Years of Insurrection and Religious Struggle, 1863-1875
- Valancius and Lithuanian Literature
Valancius, Motiejus (1801-1875), bishop of Samogitia, historian and writer, born into a well-to-do peasant family in Nasrenai village, county of Kretinga, on Feb. 16, 1801. Early in his youth, he had his baptismal records altered to indicate noble birth; the family name was polonised to Wolonczewski. This practice, not uncommon among prosperous villagers, was a means of providing educational opportunities otherwise denied to peasant children. In 1816 he entered the Dominican school at Zemaiciu Kalvarija and six years later began his studies at the Theological Seminary in Varniai. He transferred to the Supreme Seminary at Vilnius in 1824, from which he graduated in 1828. Ordained a priest that same year, he spent the next six years teaching religion in Boleros. In 1834 he returned to Lithuania to take up a teaching position at the Kraziai secondary school. In 1840 he was assigned to the Vilnius Theological Academy, where he lectured in pastoral theology and biblical archaeology and where he earned his doctorate in theology in 1842. That same year on order of the Tsar, the Academy, its teaching staff and student body, was moved to St. Petersburg, Russia. Valancius came back to Lithuania for reasons of health in 1845 and was appointed rector of the Varniai Theological Seminary, serving in this capacity until 1850. Having been absent from Lithuania during the anti-Russian uprising in 1831, Valancius was considered to be relatively apolitical, and thus the Russian government did not object when he was proposed as Episcopal candidate for the see of Samogitia. He was consecrated bishop in 1850, the first peasant to ever head that prestigious diocese. Taking up his duties, he quiped the diocese for the next 25 years, years of religious, political and social change not only within Samogitia but also in Lithuania as a whole. He expanded and improved the Samogitian parochial school network, wrote a great many religious books, and in 1858 inaugurated a temperance movement, which grew to encompass nearly a million member, almost half of the countrys population. His pastoral and educational work was interrupted by the uprising of 1863-64 and was made extremely difficult as the Russian government tightened its reins after the collapse of the revolt. Yet these circumstances did not prevent him from following a course which could not but bring him into direct conflict with the authorities. He made every effort to undermine the governments scheme of Rustication. In 1874 Valancius fell seriously ill and died in Kaunas in May 29, 1875. His services to the Lithuanian cause were lasting and important. His opposite to the Russian government and the tactics he employed in resisting its policies, particularly the illegal practice of printing Lithuanian books in East Prussia and smuggling them into Lithuania, served to stimulate the emergence of the Lithuanian national movement. An adductor, an able Church administrator, historian and ethnographer, and a talented writer, Valancius emerged as one of the most versatile and influential figures in nineteenth century Lithuania. Bishop of Samogitia Well aware of the rising social importance of the peasantry, Valancius concentrated the activities of the Church towards this class. He was the first bishop who consistently published his pastoral letters in Lithuania, in the Samogitian dialect that he spoke himself. His pastoral letters admonished the peasants for their superstitious beliefs and practices, scolded them when they showed indifference to their faith, coaxed them into supporting education, and always showed a fatherly concern for the welfare of his people, to whom he affectionately referred as his aveles (lambs). He made frequent visits to parishes throughout the diocese; improved the discipline and raised the standards as the clergy; and enlisted a number of his younger, more capable priests in the cause of Lithuania. In spite of his generality conservative social views and the fact that he sought to establish and maintain friendly with the Polonized lanown nobility, he found his relations with members of this class deteriorating. One of the reasons for this was his practice of intervening on behalf on the peasants, who were maltreated and exploited by estate owners, manorial officials and government representatives. Thus, although he respected the role of the Polish language in the Church and did not consciously attempt to subvert the social supremacy of the countrys Polonised nobility, his own peasant origins and close identification with the village population aroused the landowners mistrust. Valancius used the authority of his office and of the Church to promote two important social movements in western Lithuania during the 1850s: peasant education and temperance. He systematized the Samogitian parish school system by requiring financial accountability and keeping of student records, and was responsible for the construction of many new elementary schools. There is no doubt that he contributed significantly to the spread of literacy among the peasants, particularly in his own diocese. Some estimates show the peasant literacy rate in that area to be as high as 50 present on the eve of the 1863 insurrection, an impressive figure for that time. He achieved an even greater, though short-lived, success in the temperance movement of the late 1850s and early 1860s (see Temperance). He was the major force behind the establishment of the so-called temperance brotherhoods (Blaivybes brolijos) across Lithuania, but it was in Samogitia that the movement assumed massive proportions. He published many popular books and pamphlets about the evil of alcohol and the virtues of sobriety. The movement spread so rapidly that by 1860 over 80 percents of the Catholics in rural Samogitia are estimated to have taken the oath of abstinence. The total membership in Kaunas gubernia in 1860 was reported as 684,536. The Russian government eventually came to realize that the temperance societies posed a serious economic and social threat. State income from liquor taxes dropped drastically: in Kaunas gubernia the tax receipts on consumed liquor reportedly fell 67 percent between 1858 and 1859. In 1860 Russians finance minister even considered Valancius expulsion from the country in order to half the drain on the Tsars treasury. Furthermore, the government recognized the temperance societies as a dangerous precedent in the Churchs organization of a volatile peasantry. In 1864 the government banned the temperance movement. Years of Insurrection and Religious Struggle, 1863–1875 Public demonstrations against the Russian government began in 1860, and an armed rebellion broke out in Lithuania early in 1863. In many localities in Samogitia these demonstrations were constructed through the churches, which served to aggravate the tense relations existing between Valancius and the authorities because of the temperance movement. Realizing that an insurrection could not end without affect the Catholic Church, in December of 1862 he appealed to the clergy to refrain from participating in a revolt. In the ensuing warfare he tried to steer a middle course between the rebels and the government, but his concern for the survival of the Church made this position uneatable. In the spring of 1863, together with Archbishop Krasinki of Vilnius, he published a special pastoral letter to the faithful of Lithuania urging a half to the bloodshed. With the arrival of Governor-General M. N. Muraviev (q. v) in Lithuania in the May 1863, his position became even more difficult. Muraviev immediately pressured Valancius to declare himself against the uprising. Reassured by Muraviev that an amnesty would be granted to those who laid down their arms, the bishop sent the governor-general a copy of a proposed pastoral letter condemning the insurrection and imploring the faithful to desist. One of Muravievs aids made changes in the letter, which Valancius was compelled to accept, and it was proclaimed, from the pulpits in September 1863. Thousands of copies of the letter entreating the peasantry to follow the example of the nobility incising armed resistance were published by Muraviev and distributed throughout Lithuania. For his apparent support of the Russian government, Valancius was bitterly criticized by many of the rebels as well as by some later historians. Other scalars have tried to show that he secretly sympathized with and, in fact, supported the rebels. The best available evidence indicates that he was a realist who foresaw the futility of the uprising. The welfare of the Church remained his foremost concern. Indeed, the events following the uprising showed that he had good reason to be concerned. The government promulgated a series of anti-Catholic measures forbidding the construction of new churches, controlling the appointment of parish priests, limiting seminary enrolment, forcing school children to attend Orthodox services, and closing all parochial schools. Furthermore, the government intensified its policy of Rustication by introducing the Cyrillic alphabet into the Lithuania language and placing a ban on the Lithuania press. In May 1864, Valancius was ordered to transfer his residence from Varniai to Kaunas where his activities could be under closer scrutiny and, according to the Russians, his harmful opposition to the government minimized. In late 1865 the Russian governments so-called Commission for the Examination of Lithuanian-Samogitian Books ruled that Valancius religious books and pamphlets of the 1850s had had a define anti-Russian slant. Actually, it was only in 1865 that Valancius began what can be termed a campaign of passive resistance against the government. In the pursuit of his duties he unavoidably skirted government regulations restricting Catholic activities and, on a number of occasions, was subjected to heavy fines. After approving the very first edition, he refused to give his imprimatur to any subsequent Lithuanian books printed in the Cyrillic alphabet. Finally, between 1867 and 1869, Valancius financed and organized the clandestine publication of a series of his own anti-government pamphlets. The titles of the publications are illustrative of their content, for example, Broliai katalikai (To Our Catholic Brethren), Perspejimas apie sventa viera (A Warning Concerning the Holy Faith), Snekesys kataliko su nekataliku (Dialogue Between a Catholic and Non-Catholic), and Vargai baznycios Lietuvoj ir Zemaiciuose (The Travails of the Church in Lithuania and Samogitia). In these pamphlets, which were printed in East Prussia, smuggled into Lithuania and disturbed to the people through a secret network, Valancius disclosed the governments plan to Russify Lithuania and to convert the people to Orthodoxy, and set forth a program of resistance. He told the people not to accept the Cyrillic books and not to send their children to the Russian schools; urged them to educate their children at home using old Lithuanian prayer books as texts and to organize secret schools in the villages. He also appealed to the peasants emerging sense of nationality by stressing the importance of preserving their native language. In 1870 the Russian police, in collaboration with Prussian officials, uncovered the secret network through which the pamphlets reached the people. The priests who had distributed the literature were exiled to Siberia. But pamphlets had had their effect. As a result of his campaign coupled with the Lithuanian peasants natural suspicious of the Orthodox government, the people completely rejected the Cyrillic books. Even more importantly, Valancius by publishing books in Tilze (Tilsit) and smuggling them into Lithuania paved the way for the later massive smugglers movement (see Knygnesys), which defended the press ban and was probably the most remarkable expression of the peoples determination to preserve their own culture. It is for this reason that Valancius although primarily concerned with the defence if the Catholic Church must be considered as one of the founders of the national renascence movement. Valancius and Lithuanian Literature In this field, Valancius played an equally important role, for which he has the title of father of Lithuania prose. His writings consist of religious, scholarly, and prose works. During his 25-years tenure as Bishop of Samogitia, he wrote a great many religious books and pamphlets intended primarily for the peasantry. Written in simple language that the people could understand, these works were immensely popular among the peasantry and stimulated the reading of Lithuanian books. Furthermore, his literary style was a vast improvement over previous religious publications, which often included superstitions and were full of Slavicism. Of his religious works, noteworthy are Zyvatas Jezaus Kristaus (The Life of Jesus Christ, 1852); Istorija sventa Senojo Istatymo (Sacred History of the Old Testament, 1853); Zyvatai sventuju (Lives of the Saints, 2 vols. 1858, 1868); and the translation Tamosius is Kempes arba kniga sekiojimo Kristaus (Thomas a Kempis or the Book on Following Christ, 1853). His scholarly work pertains to history and ethnography. The two-volume Zemaiciu vyskupyste (The Diocese of Samogitia, 1848), not only gives a broad account of the history of the diocese from its founding in 1417 up to 1841, be also contains much information on the political and cultural life of Lithuania. It is well documented, written in a vivid style in the Samogitian dialect, and remains a work of enduring value, since many of the sources used are no longer available. To the field of ethnography belongs his Patarles Zemaiciu (Samogitian Proverbs, 1867), which contains over 1,300 popular adages and which until fairly recent years was the first major work of its kind. But it is with his secular prose works that Valancius secured his reputation, these are didactic in nature and portray the virtues and vices of everyday life. His best work in this genre is the delightful narrative Palangos Juze (Juze of Palanga), a collection of tales as told a village tailor, Juze, about his travels through Lithuania with many colourful descriptions of the customs and more of the people. This book went through many editions and was, quite possibly, the most widely read work of fiction in the 19th century. No less popular was Vaiku knygele (Little Book for Children, 1864), short stories teaching the young the moral principles.
ZADEIKIS, Povilas (1887-1957), diplomat, born in Paresketis, county of Telsiai, on March 14, 1887. He studied chemistry at the University of St. Petersburg, Russia (1907-12). Durind World War I he was mobilised by the Russians and sent to the western front in Lithuania as a company commander; later, having completed a course at the Electric Engineering School of Petrograd, he was radio communications chief with the 28th corps, stationed near Moscow. Subsequently he worked with the repatriation commission in Petrograd assisting the return of Lithuanian refugees to their homeland. In the last days of 1918 he himself came back to his country, enlisted in the Lithuanian army, and undertook to form an Electro-technical unit. From July to October, 1919, he served as Minister of Defence in the Slezevicius; in 1920-21 he was a member of the Lithuanian Mission and his countrys military representative in the United States; and in 1923 was sent on a military mission to France. In December of 1923, he resigned from the army, joined the Ministry of Foreign Affair, and was assigned to consular in the United States. He served as the first consul of Lithuania in Chicago (1924-28); as consul general in New York (1928-35); and then until his death on May 11, 1957, an envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary in Washington. Although Lithuania came under Soviet Russian domination during World War II, he was able to remain in his post as lawful representative of the independent Republic of Lithuania when the State Department announced (July 23, 1940) that the United States would not recognize the Soviet annexation of the country. He continued to maintain contact with other Lithuanian diplomats in the Free world, attended their conferences in Paris (1947) and London (1952), and worked with Lithuanian liberation organizations, such as the Supreme Committee for the Liberation of Lithuania and the Lithuanian Americam Council. On a number of occasions he submitted memoranda to the governments of the United States and other countries, as well as to the press, on the situation of Lithuania. He published the brochures Introducing Lithuania (1930, 2nd. ed. 1933) an Aspect of the Lithuanian Record of Independence (1944).
ZADEIKIS, Pranciskus (1869-1933), Roman Catholic priest, born in Paresketis, county of Telsiai, on Oct. 23, 1869. He studied for the priesthood at the Theological Seminary of Kaunas and was ordained in 1893. He spent the next ten years as curate of St. Casmir parish in Kamajai. From 1906-09 he was secretary of St. Casimirs Society in Kaunas; pastor at Pasusvys from 1909-15; and then until his death on Dec. 6, 1933, pastor of the Holy Trinity parish in Skuodas. Bishop Justinas Staugaitis raised him to the rank of honorary canon in 1927. In the course of his ministry, he also concerned himself with the social welfare of the people, helping farmers to organize co-operatives and to establish schools, promoting temperance, and protecting his parishioners against the abuses and injustices of the military administration during the period of German occupation (1915-18). Subsequently he published two volumes of memoirs entitled Didziojo karo uzrasai (Notes from the Great War, 1921-25), in
Which he included much of the documentary material he had collected on the occupational regime. Interested in his countries past, he took part in the archaeological excavations of the Apuole fortress hill and wrote a report about his findings, which was published in 1935. He translated the 13th-century Rhymed Chronicle of Livonia (unpublished) and Konstancja Skirmunts Mindog, krol litewski (Mindaugas, King of Lithuania), and was one of the translators of Homers Iliad. He published several popular religious books.
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